Developing Indicators for Evaluating Climate-Smart Agriculture Practices in Vietnam
Vietnam, an agriculture-based country, presents a typical example of food production—climate change paradox. Agriculture is a major contributor to the national and household economies, accounting for approximately 20.0 percent of Vietnam’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 11.9 percent of total export value, and generating about 67.7 percent employment in 2015. Agricultural growth is, thus, seen as a means to ensure national food security and a tool to generate income. However, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment or MONRE (2015) notes that agriculture is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, contributing 39.1 percent of the total GHG of the Vietnamese economy in 2010. To fulfill the Paris 21st Conference of the Parties or COP 21 agreement, the country needs to reduce its total GHG by 825 percent.