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There are around 550 different bee species in Germany. Most of them are solitary bees. They don't live in large beehives like the honeybee, but each female bee often builds multiple nests and feeds her offspring alone. Solitary bees use their short lifespan of a few weeks exclusively to reproduce and to provide food for their brood to develop into adult bees. Bees depend on the availability of pollen which they can frequently collect on specific plant species only.

The researchers studied three mason bee species. One of them was the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis). Credit: Mariela Schenk

There are around 550 different bee species in Germany. Most of them are solitary bees. They don't live in large beehives like the honeybee, but each female bee often builds multiple nests and feeds her offspring alone. Solitary bees use their short lifespan of a few weeks exclusively to reproduce and to provide food for their brood to develop into adult bees. Bees depend on the availability of pollen which they can frequently collect on specific plant species only.

Read more: Climate change threatens domestic bee species

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Over 7 million tons of mollusc shells are discarded by the seafood industry each year as unwanted waste -- and the vast majority of these shells are either thrown in landfills or dumped at sea. Researchers are looking at environmentally and economically sustainable options for these biomaterials.

Artificial oyster reef in the Netherlands is pictured. Credit: Dr James Morris

Over 7 million tonnes of mollusc shells are discarded by the seafood industry each year as unwanted waste -- and the vast majority of these shells are either thrown in landfills or dumped at sea. Dr James Morris and a team of CACHE researchers from the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences are looking at environmentally and economically sustainable options for these biomaterials.

Read more: Sea shells for sale: A new source of sustainable biomaterials

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As the U.S. stands aside, India and China should up their game.

Step forward, China and India. Photographer: Scott Olson/Getty Images

Ever since the U.S. announced its withdrawal from the Paris agreement, China and India have been hailed for firmly recommitting to the global emissions pact. The praise is fair: It’s good that two of the world’s three biggest greenhouse-gas emitters have renewed their promise to act. But if they really hope to lead on climate, they’ll have to be more ambitious.

Read more: How Asia Can Take the Lead on Climate

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