Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 1 | By Antonio G.M. La Viña | 2013

In the face of the threats posed by climate change, initiatives for the conservation of natural resources are now being prioritized globally, particularly the conservation of watersheds and forests to reduce carbon emissions. REDD+ (Reducing Emissions, Deforestation, and Forest Degradation and the Conservation of Existing Carbon Stocks) is now gaining ground as a sound mechanism to address climate change. However, countries need to mainstream and adequately implement the social, governance, and environmental safeguards of REDD+ for the mechanism to succeed. Likewise, the issue of carbon property rights needs to be clarified to ensure that the rights of the primary duty bearers of forest and watershed management are recognized.

Humanity is now approaching a “state-shift” in the Earth’s biosphere—a tipping point in the global ecological system—primarily caused by the human-induced climate change. As the detrimental effects and the causes of climate change become apparent, initiatives for the conservation of natural resources have become a global priority, particularly the conservation of watersheds and forests to lessen the anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Read more: REDD+ for Climate Change: Ensuring the Rights of Local Communities

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 2. No. 6 | By Rex Victor O. Cruz | 2013

Watersheds are critical to economic development and environmental protection in Southeast Asia. Thus, managing them effectively is a key in the pursuit toward sustainable development. Watershed management, however, is a complex decision-making process. The threat brought by climate change further puts stress on the already-stressed watersheds in the region, and would further complicate the already-complex process of watershed management and governance. Extensive research is therefore needed to provide an empirical database that will predict the future changes in watersheds. An integrated watershed management framework must also be developed to synchronize the development of all land and water uses. The roles of multiple stakeholders involved in watershed management and governance should be harmonized in order to achieve effective watershed management and governance in a changing climate.

Read more: Watershed Management and Governance in a Changing Climate

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 2. No. 5 | By Auke Idzenga | 2013

adn2013-2-6Anangue is an upland village located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, Philippines. The primary livelihood in the village is farming. However, the villagers experience low agricultural productivity due to the lack of access to sufficient water.

The nearest source of water in the village is a freshwater spring located 240 meters away and elevated by 80 meters. Thus, the community greatly depends on rainfall for domestic consumption and agricultural production. However, with the onset of climate change causing variations in the rainfall pattern and distribution, access to water became more difficult and costly.

To respond to the challenges of agricultural areas like Anangue, the Negros-based organization Alternative Indigenous Development Foundation, Inc. (AIDFI) was established. AIDFI aims to address water problems including those faced by small-scale farmers using various adaptation technologies such as its hydraulic ram pump.

Read more: Hydraulic Ram Pump: A Practical Solution to Climate Change

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 2. No. 4 | By David Manalo | 2013

Flooding is a prevalent problem in the Philippines, especially now that there are heavier rains due to climate change. Experience has shown that being prepared for a disaster can minimize casualty and damage. However, for people living in remote areas, preparedness could be a problem, as they do not usually have access to radio, TV, mobile phones, and other media that can immediately warn of possible floods and landslides. As such, an effective early warning system needs to be designed specifically for far, remote areas.

The Bell and Bottle Early Warning System (EWS) project aims to address this need. With funding from the World Bank, the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) in cooperation with the Center for Initiative and Research on Climate Change Adaptation (CIRCA) is implementing this project in 15 to 20 villages in Albay province, a mountainous area in the Philippines with many remote communities. The project seeks to establish a low-cost, fast, effective, and community-based early warning system designed for remote communities that are prone to floods and landslides.

Read more: Bell and Bottle Technology: Community-based Early Warning System

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 1. No. 5 | By Felino P. Lansigan, Gernot Laganda, Reiner Wassman, and Anan Polthanee | 2012

Climate change is a global problem that affects all areas of human life. Both natural processes, like volcanic eruptions, and anthropogenic activities, such as population increase and industrialization, cause climate change. Furthermore, climate change has impacts on agriculture, forestry, public health, and other systems, and these effects vary across different places in the world.  

Adaptation and mitigation measures are necessary to reduce the risks brought about by climate change. While adaptation considers future risks and seeks to prepare the society and the other systems to the impacts of climate change, mitigation aims to keep climate change below the dangerous level.  

Read more: A Systems Approach to Reducing Risks in Rice Production in Southeast Asia

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 1. No. 6 | By Mozaharul Alam, Louis Lebel, Lucille Elna de Guzman, and Oscar Zamora | 2012

Southeast Asia relies heavily on its agricultural capacity, species diversity, and natural resources. However, with the whole region experiencing the impacts of climate change, the need to identify strategic roles for climate change adaptation and mitigation in Southeast Asia rises. Therefore, initiatives, policies, and new technologies are needed to help different countries in the region manage the effects of climate change. The challenge is in contextualizing and localizing international policies in designing and implementing projects on climate change adaptation and mitigation. Small communities should realize the need to contextualize such initiatives to fit their own needs and capacities.  

Read more: Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change in Southeast Asia

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 2. No. 1 | By Joey Sarte Salceda1 | 2012

Albay, Philippines is a province located along the eastern coast of the country, facing the Philippine Sea and the Pacific Ocean. With a land area of 2, 552 square kilometres, it is considered the second largest in the Bicol Region.  

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Aside from being the second largest province in the region, Albay is also known as the “Vatican of Disasters” of the Philippines. Various natural phenomena such as typhoons, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis have plagued the area. As a result, the people of Albay have been vulnerable to persistent poverty, low economic income, and climatic and geological hazards.  

Read more: Adapting to Climate Change: Strategies of Albay, Philippines

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 2 No. 2 | By Ronaldo Golez1 | Dumangas, Ilo-ilo2 | 2012

Dumangas, Iloilo is a coastal town located in the island of Panay, Visayas, Philippines with most of its area devoted to agriculture and fisheries. However, the town experiences two extreme conditions: drought during the dry season, and flooding during the rainy season—where for the latter, 65% of the total area of Dumangas is usually inundated. Consequently, farmers experience difficulty in monitoring and maintaining their crops.  

As the local government’s initial step to help the farmers adjust to the adverse impacts of climate change, the municipal government of Dumangas started the Climate Field School (CFS) Program in 2007. The CFS Program was first launched and applied in Indramayu, Indonesia. The Municipality of Dumangas is the first in the Philippines, and second in Asia, to adopt this program. Aside from being able to help the farmers increase farm production, the CFS program enhances the farmers’ adaptive capacity, while addressing poverty and reducing vulnerability and their causes.  

In 2008, Dumangas had a significant increase in rice production. It even surpassed the municipality of Pototan, Iloilo—the biggest rice producer in Western Visayas. In 2011, Dumangas continued to be one of the dominant rice producers. The municipality and the farmers saw this success as a result of the CFS program. CFS enabled them to monitor the changing weather and adjust their farming practices. Hence, they were able to maintain good quality agricultural products despite the continuous threats posted by climate change.


Read more: Climate Field School: An Innovative Approach to Agricultural Adaptation

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adn-cca-vol2-3Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 2 No. 3 | By Ron P. Crisostomo1 and Fr. Francis Lucas | 2012

One of the oldest towns in Quezon, Philippines is Infanta—a first class municipality3 serving as home to a population of more than 60,000.  Infanta is located on the eastern coast of the northern island of the Philippines. It directly faces the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra Madre mountain range, which makes it a site vulnerable to hydro-meteorological disasters and sea level rise.  For their livelihood, residents of Infanta rely on its agricultural, fisheries, trade, and services sector.  

On 29 November 2004, tropical depression “Winnie” hit Infanta and its neighboring towns, General Nakar and Real, with an abnormally heavy rainfall.  Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) - Infanta Weather Station measured a rainfall amount of approximately 372 mm in less than 24 hours.  The said heavy rainfall, which was statistically equivalent to 18 days worth of rain in a typically rainy November month, caused massive landslides in the upstream area of the Agos River and eventually, flashfloods that inundated the whole municipality.  The disaster left 165 people dead, 11 injured, and more than 4, 000 houses damaged. Public infrastructures and utilities worth PHP 300 M were also ruined. In addition to this, the agricultural sector of Infanta was greatly affected. Damages to crops, livestock, and fisheries amounted to PHP 103.3 M.

Read more: Gearing up towards Community-based Climate Change Program

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ADN_CCA_Vol_1_No_4Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 1. No. 4 | By Rogelio N. Concepcion, Maria Victoria O. Espaldon, Sylvie Lewicki-Dhainaut, Ranell Martin M. Dedicatoria, and Edwin R. Abucay | 2011

The Philippines has recently been experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, and its most common manifestation is the increasing frequency of extreme events like El Nino, La Nina, and strong typhoons.

In 2009, the country greatly suffered when it was successively hit by super typhoons Ondoy (Ketsana), Pepeng (Parma), and Quedan (Melor).

According to the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), the country’s climate monitoring body, an average of 20 typhoons enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) annually, of which, about nine to ten have combined strong winds and rainfall which can disrupt agricultural production and cause damage to infrastructure.

Read more: Coping with Extreme Climatic Events: Stories of Resiliency in the Philippines

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