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Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2011-2
By Victor B. Ella, PhD

The threats of climate change could adversely affect groundwater resources. In the Philippines - whose population relies heavily on groundwater resources for domestic, agricultural, industrial and other uses - it is important to quantitatively determine the potential effects of climate change on these resources to serve as a basis for sustainable groundwater management. Advanced computer simulation techniques, such as the numerical groundwater model, are yet to be fully utilized in analyzing and predicting the effects of climate change on groundwater the Philippines.

With this in mind, a research supported by SEARCA’s Seed Fund For Research and Training (SFRT) was implemented to explore the use of a numerical groundwater model to simulate and predict the effects of climate change on groundwater levels in a selected productive shallow aquifer system in the Philippines.   The study aimed to determine the hydraulic effects of climate change on groundwater resources and consequently, recommend appropriate policy directions. It also intended to provide basis for possible up-scaling on a regional and national level.

Read more: Simulating the Hydraulic Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Using a Numerical...

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2010-7
By Digna O. Manzanilla and David E. Johnson

Nearly 100 million rice farmers live in unfavorable rice environments. These communities are among the poorest and most vulnerable to climate change. Solutions are urgently needed to avoid some of the worst impacts of climate change.

At a Consortium for Unfavorable Rice Environments (CURE) workshop held in Cambodia in May 2010, with the theme: Responding to changing climate in the unfavorable rice environments, climate specialist Kay Sumfleth outlined some of the expected impacts of climate change. Climate modelers suggest that year-to-year variability will increase and extreme events will be more frequent. There are great uncertainties over regional differences and the expected impacts of climate change on rice agro-ecosystems. Amid these uncertainties, however, farmers in unfavorable areas are already facing many of the constraints that are expected with climate change. Solutions being developed with farmers in “today’s” unfavorable environments, therefore, will serve rural people in other areas likely to be affected in “tomorrow’s” world.

Read more: Developing “Climate-ready” rice to safeguard livelihoods in the fragile ecosystems

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2010-6
By Agnes C. Rola and Asa Jose U. Sajise

As population increases and as lowland farm lands are rapidly being diverted to alternative uses, the uplands will have an increasing role in securing food. But, without appropriate soil conservation techniques, upland soils become prone to erosion and could eventually become infertile as production intensifies leading to unsustainable production.

However, conservation agriculture (e.g., no-till technology, grass strips plus ridge tillage, alley cropping, contour hedgerows), which is known to effectively reduce soil erosion, has not been widely adopted by farmers. A recent study by Rola, et al. (2009) tried to answer two issues related to the use of conservation technologies for upland corn farmers, namely: 1) Why do corn farmers adopt conservation agriculture technologies and what induces them to adopt; and 2) Do conservation technologies increase production levels and make households less vulnerable to weather disturbances?

Read more: Food Security under Climate Risk: Conservation Farming and Upland Corn in the Philippines

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2009-8
By Akihiro Sawa

The fifteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change closed with broad agreement on the Copenhagen Accord.

What is its significance and what are its implications for the future?

COP 15 Agenda

The biggest agenda of COP15 was to decide on a post-Kyoto protocol Framework within which the world would address climate change beyond 2012. The world’s attention had been focused on whether or not the meeting would succeed in establishing a framework that would impose legally binding emission reductions, in particular, upon the US, the developing countries, China, India, and other newly emerging economies experiencing remarkably rapid growth. Earlier, however, the US explicitly announced that it had no intention to return to the Kyoto Protocol.

The worst scenario for Japan would have been a decision on both a new framework involving the US and China and the extension of the Kyoto Protocol, therefore, perpetuating the disparity of obligation levels between Japan and other countries including the US. We can give the governmen credit for its diplomatic efforts to successfully avoid pushing Japan into such dire straits.

Read more: Japan’s Agenda after COP15: Forget Numerical Targets, Give the World a Framework

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2009-7
By Dr. Gelia T. Castillo

The global food crisis, manifested by soaring rice prices and long queues of would-be buyers, has generated various forms of social unrest all over the world. In the wake of these tumultuous developments, a renewed interest in agriculture has surfaced.

As the world “rushes to rice”, the focus tends to be geared toward producing more rice in irrigated, favorable, large, and accessible farms. However, one should not forget how the unfavorable areas would cope. These include the rainfed, upland, drought-prone, flooded and submerged, saline soils, and other problematic areas. They are the topographically, ecologically, and climatically challenged rice-growing places, where rice probably should not be grown, but is.

Read more: CURE Approach amidst Rice Crisis and Changing Climate

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2008-7 

When it rains, it pours. And this is true for Vietnam, particularly when it comes to floods and typhoons. The UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007) estimates that 84% of all disaster deaths between 2000 and 2005 are all flood-related. It also reports that the number of floods have increased from 60 to 100 per year between 2004 and 2006.

Likewise, IDRC’s EEPSEA Director, Dr. Herminia A. Francisco,2 reports the same observation – that Vietnamese people have been living with floods all their lives. These floods will still rise given climate change. In responding to the challenge of changing climate, IDRC conducted case studies in Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, China, and Thailand.

Read more: Flood- and Typhoon-Proofing Communities: Learning from the Vietnam Experience

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2008-6
By Rodel D. Lasco

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment report highlights the role of tropical forests in mitigating the negative consequences of climate change. Initial results from Alternatives to Slash and Burn Partnership (ASB) study suggest that the abatement costs of alternative land uses are reasonable.

Introduction

Tropical forests are among the most valuable ecosystems in the world for many reasons. Although covering less than 10% of the earth’s land area, they provide 800 million people with fuel, food, and income (Chomitz, 2007). They harbor the largest terrestrial reservoir of biological diversity, from the gene to the habitat level. For example, more than 50% of known plant species grow in tropical forests (Mayaux et al. 2005). They help regulate climate by storing vast amounts of carbon.

Read more: Tropical Forests and Climate Change Mitigation

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2008-2
By Rodel D. Lasco, Roberta Gerpacio, Patricia Ann J. Sanchez, and Rafaela Jane P. Delfino

The Philippines has been considered as highly vulnerable to current, as well as future, risks associated with climate change.

Every year, the Philippines experiences eight to nine tropical cyclones making a landfall, mild earthquakes, recurring landslides and flooding. The country is also periodically affected by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) that induces prolonged wet and dry seasons, adversely affecting the local economy.

Climate change is thus expected to exacerbate existing stresses in the country, particularly the more vulnerable natural ecosystems and local communities.

Read more: Philippine Environment and Climate Change: An Assessment of Policies and their Impacts

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 1 | By Antonio G.M. La Viña | 2013

In the face of the threats posed by climate change, initiatives for the conservation of natural resources are now being prioritized globally, particularly the conservation of watersheds and forests to reduce carbon emissions. REDD+ (Reducing Emissions, Deforestation, and Forest Degradation and the Conservation of Existing Carbon Stocks) is now gaining ground as a sound mechanism to address climate change. However, countries need to mainstream and adequately implement the social, governance, and environmental safeguards of REDD+ for the mechanism to succeed. Likewise, the issue of carbon property rights needs to be clarified to ensure that the rights of the primary duty bearers of forest and watershed management are recognized.

Humanity is now approaching a “state-shift” in the Earth’s biosphere—a tipping point in the global ecological system—primarily caused by the human-induced climate change. As the detrimental effects and the causes of climate change become apparent, initiatives for the conservation of natural resources have become a global priority, particularly the conservation of watersheds and forests to lessen the anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Read more: REDD+ for Climate Change: Ensuring the Rights of Local Communities

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 2. No. 6 | By Rex Victor O. Cruz | 2013

Watersheds are critical to economic development and environmental protection in Southeast Asia. Thus, managing them effectively is a key in the pursuit toward sustainable development. Watershed management, however, is a complex decision-making process. The threat brought by climate change further puts stress on the already-stressed watersheds in the region, and would further complicate the already-complex process of watershed management and governance. Extensive research is therefore needed to provide an empirical database that will predict the future changes in watersheds. An integrated watershed management framework must also be developed to synchronize the development of all land and water uses. The roles of multiple stakeholders involved in watershed management and governance should be harmonized in order to achieve effective watershed management and governance in a changing climate.

Read more: Watershed Management and Governance in a Changing Climate

Knowledge Showcases

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