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Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

Simulating the Hydraulic Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in a Selected Aquifer in the Philippines Using a Numerical Groundwater Model
By Victor B. Ella

Abstract

Climate change can negatively impact groundwater resources due to its influence on the hydrologic cycle. In view of the Philippines’ heavy reliance on groundwater resources, it is important to quantify these effects to serve as basis for sustainable groundwater resources management. This study aimed to simulate and predict the effects of climate change on groundwater levels on selected productive shallow aquifer system in Bay, Laguna, Philippines, using a numerical groundwater model. 

Model simulations using various climate change scenarios, based on the lower and upper limits of predicted air temperature from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Third Assessment Report, indicated that groundwater levels generally decline as temperature increases and as precipitation decreases. In a low temperature condition, the model showed that groundwater levels will decline at an average rate of 0.10785 m, 0.11286 m and 0.11294 m per decade of 0, 10, and 20 percent decrease in annual precipitation, respectively. This could mean that by the end of 2050, groundwater levels are likely to decrease by 0.43138 m, 0.45143m and 0.45177 m if rainfall decreases by 0, 10, and 20 percent. Using the high temperature increase scenario, the model predicted a 0.43924 m, 0.45 m, and 0.45439 m decrease in groundwater levels under 0, 10 and 20 percent annual precipitation reduction scenarios, respectively. This corresponds to a decadal groundwater decline of 0.10981 m, 0.11250 m and 0.11360 m.

Read more: Simulating the Hydraulic Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in a Selected Aquifer...

Knowledge Showcases

Integrating Climate Change Issues in Southeast Asian Schools: A Teachers’ Guidebook
Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation | 2010

The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) was established on 30 November 1965 as a chartered international organisation whose purpose is to promote cooperation in education, science and culture in the Southeast Asian region. 

 

SEAMEO’s mission is “to enhance regional understanding and cooperation and unity of purpose among SEAMEO Member Countries and achieve a better quality of life through (a) the establishment of networks and partnerships, (b) the provision of an intellectual forum for policy makers and experts, and (c) the promotion of sustainable human resource development.

 

Eight SEAMEO Regional Centres, namely; RECSAM, BIOTROP, SPAFA, SEARCA, SEAMOLEC, TROPMED Philippines, TROPMED Indonesia, and INNOTECH embarked on a collaboration to publish this Teachers’ Guidebook to address the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia. The publication of this guidebook aims to raise the awareness level of our future citizens in Southeast Asia with their teachers’ guidance and help; so that they will take positive actions for a better quality of life on our planet.

Read more: Integrating Climate Change Issues in Southeast Asian Schools: A Teachers’ Guidebook

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2013-2
By Rico Ancog, PhD and Mariliza V. Ticsay, PhD

Making Agriculture Sector Climate Smart

Agriculture remains a major engine of growth in Southeast Asia. With a growing population projected to reach as high as 600 million in 2015, concern is high on the observed increasing mean temperature in Southeast Asia. This in turn has been correlated to the increased frequency and variability of other climate hazards and risks resulting to the reduction of agricultural productivity of major agricultural commodities especially rice and corn. Given that the majority of the countries in the region are agriculture-based, making agriculture climate smart is a requisite towards achieving its potential in reducing poverty and achieving food security.

Enhancing resilience of the Southeast Asian agriculture sector to climate change would largely depend on the optimal combination of technical, socioeconomic, and financial mechanisms that must be well placed. 

Read more: Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture in Southeast Asia: Broad Trends and Some Policy and...

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2012-2
By Beatriz Cuevas Jadina

The case of Leyte and Southern Leyte

Leyte and Southern Leyte are two provinces in the Philippines with the most catastrophic landslide history. The worst of which occurred in Ormoc City, Leyte in November 1991 and in Panaon Island, Southern Leyte on 19 December 2003. These events, triggered by heavy and continuous rain, claimed the lives of more than 5,000 landslide and flashflood victims in Ormoc City and 200 people in Southern Leyte. 

On 17 February 2006, a massive landslide also occurred in Barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard, Southern Leyte where more than 1,000 people were buried alive. On 2 January 2011, another landslide hit the town of St. Bernard claiming the lives of at least five people.

Landslides result in serious negative impacts to the community, society, and the environment. 

Read more: Landslide occurrences in the Philippines: Contributing factors and implications to local governance

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2011-2
By Victor B. Ella, PhD

The threats of climate change could adversely affect groundwater resources. In the Philippines - whose population relies heavily on groundwater resources for domestic, agricultural, industrial and other uses - it is important to quantitatively determine the potential effects of climate change on these resources to serve as a basis for sustainable groundwater management. Advanced computer simulation techniques, such as the numerical groundwater model, are yet to be fully utilized in analyzing and predicting the effects of climate change on groundwater the Philippines.

With this in mind, a research supported by SEARCA’s Seed Fund For Research and Training (SFRT) was implemented to explore the use of a numerical groundwater model to simulate and predict the effects of climate change on groundwater levels in a selected productive shallow aquifer system in the Philippines.   The study aimed to determine the hydraulic effects of climate change on groundwater resources and consequently, recommend appropriate policy directions. It also intended to provide basis for possible up-scaling on a regional and national level.

Read more: Simulating the Hydraulic Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Using a Numerical...

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2010-7
By Digna O. Manzanilla and David E. Johnson

Nearly 100 million rice farmers live in unfavorable rice environments. These communities are among the poorest and most vulnerable to climate change. Solutions are urgently needed to avoid some of the worst impacts of climate change.

At a Consortium for Unfavorable Rice Environments (CURE) workshop held in Cambodia in May 2010, with the theme: Responding to changing climate in the unfavorable rice environments, climate specialist Kay Sumfleth outlined some of the expected impacts of climate change. Climate modelers suggest that year-to-year variability will increase and extreme events will be more frequent. There are great uncertainties over regional differences and the expected impacts of climate change on rice agro-ecosystems. Amid these uncertainties, however, farmers in unfavorable areas are already facing many of the constraints that are expected with climate change. Solutions being developed with farmers in “today’s” unfavorable environments, therefore, will serve rural people in other areas likely to be affected in “tomorrow’s” world.

Read more: Developing “Climate-ready” rice to safeguard livelihoods in the fragile ecosystems

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2010-6
By Agnes C. Rola and Asa Jose U. Sajise

As population increases and as lowland farm lands are rapidly being diverted to alternative uses, the uplands will have an increasing role in securing food. But, without appropriate soil conservation techniques, upland soils become prone to erosion and could eventually become infertile as production intensifies leading to unsustainable production.

However, conservation agriculture (e.g., no-till technology, grass strips plus ridge tillage, alley cropping, contour hedgerows), which is known to effectively reduce soil erosion, has not been widely adopted by farmers. A recent study by Rola, et al. (2009) tried to answer two issues related to the use of conservation technologies for upland corn farmers, namely: 1) Why do corn farmers adopt conservation agriculture technologies and what induces them to adopt; and 2) Do conservation technologies increase production levels and make households less vulnerable to weather disturbances?

Read more: Food Security under Climate Risk: Conservation Farming and Upland Corn in the Philippines

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2009-8
By Akihiro Sawa

The fifteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change closed with broad agreement on the Copenhagen Accord.

What is its significance and what are its implications for the future?

COP 15 Agenda

The biggest agenda of COP15 was to decide on a post-Kyoto protocol Framework within which the world would address climate change beyond 2012. The world’s attention had been focused on whether or not the meeting would succeed in establishing a framework that would impose legally binding emission reductions, in particular, upon the US, the developing countries, China, India, and other newly emerging economies experiencing remarkably rapid growth. Earlier, however, the US explicitly announced that it had no intention to return to the Kyoto Protocol.

The worst scenario for Japan would have been a decision on both a new framework involving the US and China and the extension of the Kyoto Protocol, therefore, perpetuating the disparity of obligation levels between Japan and other countries including the US. We can give the governmen credit for its diplomatic efforts to successfully avoid pushing Japan into such dire straits.

Read more: Japan’s Agenda after COP15: Forget Numerical Targets, Give the World a Framework

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2009-7
By Dr. Gelia T. Castillo

The global food crisis, manifested by soaring rice prices and long queues of would-be buyers, has generated various forms of social unrest all over the world. In the wake of these tumultuous developments, a renewed interest in agriculture has surfaced.

As the world “rushes to rice”, the focus tends to be geared toward producing more rice in irrigated, favorable, large, and accessible farms. However, one should not forget how the unfavorable areas would cope. These include the rainfed, upland, drought-prone, flooded and submerged, saline soils, and other problematic areas. They are the topographically, ecologically, and climatically challenged rice-growing places, where rice probably should not be grown, but is.

Read more: CURE Approach amidst Rice Crisis and Changing Climate

Knowledge Showcases

POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2008-7 

When it rains, it pours. And this is true for Vietnam, particularly when it comes to floods and typhoons. The UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007) estimates that 84% of all disaster deaths between 2000 and 2005 are all flood-related. It also reports that the number of floods have increased from 60 to 100 per year between 2004 and 2006.

Likewise, IDRC’s EEPSEA Director, Dr. Herminia A. Francisco,2 reports the same observation – that Vietnamese people have been living with floods all their lives. These floods will still rise given climate change. In responding to the challenge of changing climate, IDRC conducted case studies in Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, China, and Thailand.

Read more: Flood- and Typhoon-Proofing Communities: Learning from the Vietnam Experience

Knowledge Showcases

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