Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

Climate Change Vulnerability Mapping of Selected Municipalities in Laguna, Philippines
by Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr., Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza, Jaimie Kim Bayani-Arias, Rowena A. Dorado, Bessie M. Burgos

Climate change is the most recent crisis of global impact, and can be most detrimental to developing countries. Southeast Asia, in particular, has been noted as one of the regions most vulnerable to climate change. The objectives of the study were to measure the vulnerability of communities to climate change and to produce maps of each community’s relative vulnerability with respect to the commune and the agricultural sector. Three vulnerability determinants—exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity—and their respective indicators were determined. Exposure refers to damage potential while sensitivity is determined by the interaction of environmental and social forces. Finally, adaptive capacity is shaped by various social, cultural, political and economic forces. The overall index of climate change vulnerability was calculated using a compromise among the three identified indices and ranked to identify the most vulnerable communes. Using GIS software, overall vulnerability maps were produced. Results showed that mostly lowland and coastal areas are greatly affected in all the vulnerability determinants.

Read more: Climate Change Vulnerability Mapping of Selected Municipalities in Laguna, Philippines

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 3 No. 6

Despite the numerous efforts initiated by the government and nongovernmental organizations in addressing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction management, the Philippines still remains one of the riskiest places in the world. This is because the country lacks the capacity to cope and adapt to natural hazards, particularly to the threats posed by climate change. The Philippines then needs to implement climate-smart disaster risk management plans and initiatives in order to address the future risks posed by climate change.

In its World Risk Index, the UN World Risk Report cited the Philippines as one of the riskiest places out of the 173 countries in the world, ranking third next to the small island nations of Vanuatu and Tonga. The ranking was not only due to the Philippines’ geography and location that makes it prone to natural calamities, but due to its vulnerability to disasters as measured by the presence/lack of public infrastructure, medical services, prevailing nutritional situation, governance, level of education, and availability of insurance.

Read more: Climate-smart Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 3 No. 5 | By John M. Pulhin2

The warming of the climate system is unequivocal. It is with this characteristic that recent climate-related disasters, including natural hazards, global temperature rise, and extreme weather events, among many, cemented the need for implementing climate change adaptation (CCA) in the Southeast Asian region. The capacity of Southeast Asians to adapt determines the resilience of the region to cope with the current and future changes in climate. Moreover, adaptation reduces the detrimental effects of climate change, while capitalizing on opportunities and beneficial potential impacts that will diminish the vulnerability of the agriculture sector in the region. However, CCA mechanisms in agriculture, in order to maximize its effectiveness, must be mainstreamed into national and local policies highlighting the importance of integration between policy makers, researchers, and the champions of farming and fishing communities.

Southeast Asia is widely considered as one of the world’s most vulnerable regions to climate change. This is caused, among others, by the region’s heavy reliance on agriculture—one of the sectors that requires particular attention in adaptation—for providing livelihoods, especially for those at or below the poverty lines. Hence, agriculture accounts for 11 percent of GDP in 2006 and 43.3 percent of employment in 2004 in Southeast Asia (ADB 2009).

Read more: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in the Agriculture Sector in Southeast Asia: Challenges...

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Climate-smart Agriculture: The Action Agenda for Southeast Asia

The Urgent Need to Make the Southeast Asian Agriculture Climate-smart

The undeniable importance of the agriculture sector in Southeast Asia provides a strong impetus for the urgent need to strengthen its potential as key for reducing poverty and in achieving food security. However, such importance of agriculture is being challenged by the increased prevalence of extreme weather events and unpredictability of weather patterns. As a result, agricultural production is seen to diminish resulting to significant lowering of incomes, particularly in vulnerable areas, with wide-ranging effects to the regional economy.

Recent global initiatives have engendered the need of climate-smart concepts to be applied in agriculture as viable options to address food security issues in the future and in cementing its role in adaptation to climate change. Implementing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) at the local level contributes to meeting global objectives, primarily those of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the World Summit on Food Security (WSFS), leading to a sustainable development landscape (Meybeck et al. 2012). Indeed, making the agriculture sector climate-smart is the way to go in advancing the climate change adaptation in the Southeast Asian region.

Read more: Climate-smart Agriculture: The Action Agenda for Southeast Asia

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Climate Change Adaptation in Watersheds for Water, Food, and Environmental Security in Southeast Asia
Training Report

Food production highly depends on the availability of water, a precious and limited resource. It is a key driver to production such that water scarcity or insufficient supply of water can constrain agricultural productivity and adversely impact food security. Accordingly, with a global population that is projected to increase to nine billion in 2050 coupled with economic growth, the demand for irrigation water to meet food production requirements and for household and industrial uses will also increase. As such, watershed management and protection of water resources play a very important role toward the attainment of environmental, water, and food security.

Read more: Climate Change Adaptation in Watersheds for Water, Food, and Environmental Security in Southeast...

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 4 | By Jaimie Kim B. Arias1, Rowena A. Dorado2, Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza3, and Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr.4 | 2014

Floods are among the most devastating hazards confronting the Philippines. Unfortunately, many households and communities are becoming more at risk because of improper land use and rapid environmental degradation, coupled with the impacts of global climate change. The lakeshore municipalities in the Sta. Cruz River Watershed are no exception, given that the area is contiguous to the largest lake in the Philippines—the Laguna de Bay.

Recent experience has shown that flooding can be very costly as it can result in the destruction of private assets as well as public infrastructure. It can also lead to loss of production and income, displacement of communities, spread of illnesses and diseases, injury, and even death.
A study5 conducted by researchers from the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) revealed that the average value of direct property damage incurred by households per flooding event is about PHP 10,450 (USD 261.25)6. This is a hefty sum given that the average household income is only about PHP 5,125 (USD 128.13) per month.

Read more: Flood Early Warning System: Viable Low-cost Adaptation for Lakeshore Municipalities in the Sta....

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 3 | By Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza, Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr., Jamie Kim B. Arias, and Bessie M. Burgos | 2014

Growing scientific evidence for the last three decades has shown that climate change is one of the major serious, if not the main, problems besetting the global community. As a matter of principle and urgency, the Philippines had adopted a policy of climate change response where adaptation is central.
The Context

Being archipelagic in character, and with over 92 M in population in 2010 increasing at an annual rate of 1.89 percent (http://www.census.gov.ph/), more and more households and communities in the Philippines are becoming at risk vis-à-vis the impacts of global climate change. An average of 20 tropical cyclones enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) per year (http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/tc_frame.htm), with an increase of 4.2 in the frequency of cyclones during the period 1990 to 2003 (PAGASA 2001 as cited by IPCC 2007).

Read more: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Climate Change Adaptation

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 2 | By Roberto Sandoval, Jr. and Stephan Baas | 2013

The manifestations of climate change are now felt by many, especially by upland farmers whose agricultural production is vulnerable to the increasingly unpredictable weather conditions. Although the local communities in the Cordillera region have been able to maintain a sustainable relationship with the resources through their indigenous knowledge and practices, climate change has severely affected the region’s agriculture sector. As such, climate change adaptation (CCA) measures in agriculture were developed in Benguet and Ifugao provinces in the Cordillera. Using the participatory action research approach, local stakeholders were capacitated as they were able to identify and enhance their own sustainable agricultural practices and combine these with knowledge-based technologies that are adaptive to climate change. Accordingly, expanding and mainstreaming these CCA agricultural measures would help improve the capacity of the country’s farmers in facing the threats of climate change.

Read more: Adapting to Climate Change: The Cordillera Experience

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International Conference on CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION FOR FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY | Conference Summary Report | January 2013

About 150 researchers, academicians, policymakers, and development workers representing 21 countries attended the International Conference on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation for Food and Environmental Security (ICCCIAFES) held on 21–22 November 2012 at the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. 


Knowledge Showcases

Moving Forward: Southeast Asian Perspectives on Climate Change and Biodiversity

Edited by:
Percy E. Sajise,
Mariliza V. Ticsay,
Gil C. Saguiguit, Jr.

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Climate change is a global phenomenon that is being experienced by all levels of society, regardless of race and species, and in all types of ecosystems, regardless of geographic location. It will have diverse effects on biodiversity, which will directly impact on food security, water supply and livelihood among others, especially for the poor and more vulnerable sectors of human society. More importantly, all forms of life including human society are trying their best to adapt and survive.

Read more: Moving Forward: Southeast Asian Perspectives on Climate Change and Biodiversity

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