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Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

GIS-aided Biophysical Characterization of Southern Leyte Landscape in Relation to Landslide Occurrences
By Beatriz C. Jadina

This study was conducted in Southern Leyte to characterize its biophysical attributes, identify factors influencing landslide occurrences, develop a landslide database, and present recommendations for suitable land use. The major attributes of the province that were mapped using geospatial technologies (geographic information system, global positioning system, and remote sensing) were rock formations and fault lines, seismic occurrences, slope characteristics, elevation, soil series, vegetation/land use, and rainfall characteristics. Some soil properties of the landslide areas were also determined.

The highest frequency (21%) of landslide occurrences in Southern Leyte was observed in Miocene–andesitic, basaltic, dacitic flows, and breccia geologic formation which is associated with the Leyte segment of the Philippine Fault. It occurred at angles greater than 18° and was at the highest frequency (54%) at angles greater than 50° in both concave and convex slope curvatures.

Forest cover in Southern Leyte decreased from 53 percent in 1954 to 38 percent in 1992—a 15 percent drop in almost four decades. This further decreased to 14 percent in 2010, a 24 percent decline in approximately two decades since 1992. Current vegetation is dominated by cultivated crops, coconut, and abaca. The province is mapped as slightly suitable (36%) to moderately suitable (51%), to suitable (13%) for coconut and abaca production. Slightly suitable areas are those found at higher elevation (> 600 meters above sea level) and steep slopes (> 50°), while those suitable are found at lower elevations and gentle slopes.

Read more: GIS-aided Biophysical Characterization of Southern Leyte Landscape in Relation to Landslide...

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Impacts of Cyclone Nargis on Livelihood, Food Security and the Agriculture Sector in Myanmar
By Khin Oo and Theingi Myint

Nowadays, international and regional institutions dedicated to research, training, and extension activities in disaster-prone
countries are emerging. Many contemporary approaches to risk management and reduction, now being discussed and advocated at the international level, have grown out of disaster reduction research and application by developing country researchers and institutions. Natural catastrophes and disasters destroy fixed assets and physical capitals, interrupt production and trade, and divert and deplete savings as well as public and private investments. More than the damage to a country’s economy, the proportion of the land area exposed to a hazard determines the severity of a disaster risk.

Read more: Impacts of Cyclone Nargis on Livelihood, Food Security and the Agriculture Sector in Myanmar

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Climate change, with its impact on agriculture, is emerging as one of the most significant development issues in the region. Climate change, among others, could alter temperature and precipitation regimes over major agricultural production regions; the frequency and intensity of extreme events – typhoon, floods, and droughts; average sea level; and incidence of pests and diseases. Moreover, agriculture is vulnerable to the impacts arising from global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are likely to affect production costs and income opportunities. Furthermore, climate change, combined with the increasing demand for food, feeds, fibre, and fuel, has the potential to irreversibly damage the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with significant consequences for food insecurity (IAASTD 2009). Thus, the relationship between climate change and agriculture is two-way: agriculture significantly contributes to climate change and climate change, in general, adversely affects agriculture.

Thus, it is becoming extremely important to put forward discourses on climate change and agriculture in Southeast Asia within the framework of the sector’s role in meeting the objectives of developing countries for food security and sustainable development. This report is among the series of publications that APAN and SEARCA committed as a part of knowledge stocktaking on climate change in Asia and the Pacific. This report aims to identify the current issues and challenges in the agriculture sector at the national and sub-regional levels by providing information on the anticipated impacts of climate change on agriculture and food security in the region, and on the ecosystems and communities most affected or most vulnerable. The current issues and challenges that hinder the strengthening of the ability to cope with climate change and its impacts are identified at the sub-regional and national levels.

Read more: A Review of Issues and Challenges in Climate Change and Agriculture in Southeast Asia

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Improving the Sub-national Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Agriculture
SEARCA-APAN

Climate change planning capacities and processes vary among the various Southeast Asian countries. But common is the difficulty faced in mobilising local action. In Cambodia, the need for policy that supports climate change adaptation (CCA) mainstreaming into national policies, planning and budgetary processes has affected mainstreaming efforts at sub-national levels (AKP 2010a).

In Vietnam, provinces without CC projects are not aware of the issue and have not yet taken any action (AKP 2010b). On the other hand, the Philippines has been responsive in terms of policy. Its Republic Act 9729, approved in 2009, mainstreamed CC into government policy formulations, established the Framework Strategy and Program on Climate Change, and created its Climate Change Commission. The year before, a memorandum circular was issued encouraging all executive councils at the provincial and municipal levels to implement CCA and disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures. Despite this policy support, local government units (LGUs) have a hard time accessing funds and operationalising CCA in development planning (AKP 2012).

Read more: SEARCA-APAN Policy Brief on Improving the Sub-national Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in...

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Socioeconomics of Climate Change in the Philippines: A Literature Synthesis (1990-2010)
By Asa Jose Sajise, Mercedita Sombilla, and Rico Ancog

Introduction and Framework of Analysis

According to the Initial Communication of the Philippines, the Philippines is among the first countries to respond to the challenge of the climate change phenomenon. As early as May 8, 1991, the Philippine government had created the Inter-agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC) by virtue of Administrative Order No. 220. Since then, several initiatives such as action-oriented programs and policies have followed to address climate change. Recently, the Philippine government established the Philippine Climate Change Commission by virtue of the Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009 (Republic Act (RA) 9729), which was signed into law on October 23, 2009. The Commission is tasked, among other things, to formulate and implement plans for the country to better respond to natural disasters. Even at the local government level, proactive Local Government Units (LGUs) like the Province of Albay and the City of Sorsogon have initiated programs and policies to address climate change.

While we have made headway in the science and prediction of events related to climate change, there have been few socio-economic literatures on climate change in the Philippines. We have yet to document more extensively the processes and dynamics of human behavior and choices as affected by climate change. How do people autonomously adapt to climate change? 

Read more: Socioeconomics of Climate Change in the Philippines: A Literature Synthesis (1990-2010)

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Strategies of the Agriculture Sector in Korea for the Post-Kyoto Regime
By Chang-Gil Kim | Korea Rural Economic Institute

The comprehensive consideration of internal and external changes in conditions pertaining to the post-2012 Kyoto Protocol scheme indicates that Korea is highly likely to be mandated to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions starting the second commitment period (2013-2017). The new emission cut mandate under the Kyoto Protocol could serve as a good opportunity for Korea, depending on how it reacts. This paper analyzes the impact of the Kyoto Protocol implementation on the agriculture sector and suggests strategies for the post-Kyoto regime. The analysis shows that the agriculture sector’s technologies for reducing GHG emission have the potential of cutting substantial amounts of emissions.

Read more: Strategies of the Agriculture Sector in Korea for the Post-Kyoto Regime

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Simulating the Hydraulic Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in a Selected Aquifer in the Philippines Using a Numerical Groundwater Model
By Victor B. Ella

Abstract

Climate change can negatively impact groundwater resources due to its influence on the hydrologic cycle. In view of the Philippines’ heavy reliance on groundwater resources, it is important to quantify these effects to serve as basis for sustainable groundwater resources management. This study aimed to simulate and predict the effects of climate change on groundwater levels on selected productive shallow aquifer system in Bay, Laguna, Philippines, using a numerical groundwater model. 

Model simulations using various climate change scenarios, based on the lower and upper limits of predicted air temperature from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Third Assessment Report, indicated that groundwater levels generally decline as temperature increases and as precipitation decreases. In a low temperature condition, the model showed that groundwater levels will decline at an average rate of 0.10785 m, 0.11286 m and 0.11294 m per decade of 0, 10, and 20 percent decrease in annual precipitation, respectively. This could mean that by the end of 2050, groundwater levels are likely to decrease by 0.43138 m, 0.45143m and 0.45177 m if rainfall decreases by 0, 10, and 20 percent. Using the high temperature increase scenario, the model predicted a 0.43924 m, 0.45 m, and 0.45439 m decrease in groundwater levels under 0, 10 and 20 percent annual precipitation reduction scenarios, respectively. This corresponds to a decadal groundwater decline of 0.10981 m, 0.11250 m and 0.11360 m.

Read more: Simulating the Hydraulic Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in a Selected Aquifer...

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Integrating Climate Change Issues in Southeast Asian Schools: A Teachers’ Guidebook
Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation | 2010

The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) was established on 30 November 1965 as a chartered international organisation whose purpose is to promote cooperation in education, science and culture in the Southeast Asian region. 

 

SEAMEO’s mission is “to enhance regional understanding and cooperation and unity of purpose among SEAMEO Member Countries and achieve a better quality of life through (a) the establishment of networks and partnerships, (b) the provision of an intellectual forum for policy makers and experts, and (c) the promotion of sustainable human resource development.

 

Eight SEAMEO Regional Centres, namely; RECSAM, BIOTROP, SPAFA, SEARCA, SEAMOLEC, TROPMED Philippines, TROPMED Indonesia, and INNOTECH embarked on a collaboration to publish this Teachers’ Guidebook to address the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia. The publication of this guidebook aims to raise the awareness level of our future citizens in Southeast Asia with their teachers’ guidance and help; so that they will take positive actions for a better quality of life on our planet.

Read more: Integrating Climate Change Issues in Southeast Asian Schools: A Teachers’ Guidebook

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POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2013-2
By Rico Ancog, PhD and Mariliza V. Ticsay, PhD

Making Agriculture Sector Climate Smart

Agriculture remains a major engine of growth in Southeast Asia. With a growing population projected to reach as high as 600 million in 2015, concern is high on the observed increasing mean temperature in Southeast Asia. This in turn has been correlated to the increased frequency and variability of other climate hazards and risks resulting to the reduction of agricultural productivity of major agricultural commodities especially rice and corn. Given that the majority of the countries in the region are agriculture-based, making agriculture climate smart is a requisite towards achieving its potential in reducing poverty and achieving food security.

Enhancing resilience of the Southeast Asian agriculture sector to climate change would largely depend on the optimal combination of technical, socioeconomic, and financial mechanisms that must be well placed. 

Read more: Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture in Southeast Asia: Broad Trends and Some Policy and...

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POLICY BRIEF SERIES | 2012-2
By Beatriz Cuevas Jadina

The case of Leyte and Southern Leyte

Leyte and Southern Leyte are two provinces in the Philippines with the most catastrophic landslide history. The worst of which occurred in Ormoc City, Leyte in November 1991 and in Panaon Island, Southern Leyte on 19 December 2003. These events, triggered by heavy and continuous rain, claimed the lives of more than 5,000 landslide and flashflood victims in Ormoc City and 200 people in Southern Leyte. 

On 17 February 2006, a massive landslide also occurred in Barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard, Southern Leyte where more than 1,000 people were buried alive. On 2 January 2011, another landslide hit the town of St. Bernard claiming the lives of at least five people.

Landslides result in serious negative impacts to the community, society, and the environment. 

Read more: Landslide occurrences in the Philippines: Contributing factors and implications to local governance

Knowledge Showcases

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