Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 5 No. 6 | Roberto Pedro C. Sandoval, Jr.2, Hideki Kanamaru3 and Jim Hancock4

ADNCCA 2015 5 6 Sandoval FINAL resizedAssessment, monitoring, and evaluation are integral parts of climate change adaptation (CCA) planning and implementation. Assessment activities contribute to defining indicators, baselines (situations at the beginning of the intervention), and baseline projections (without intervention). On the other hand, M&E activities set baselines, define indicators, measure progress, and evaluate successes and setbacks in adaptation interventions. Designing a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System is therefore challenging, particularly when deciding which indicator will match with a particular goal to measure project success.

Read more: Designing a Monitoring and Evaluation System for Climate Change Adaptation Planning and...

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APAN Tech4 smallClimate variability and weather fluctuations are important risk factors in crop production. They have caused reduced yields and significant reduction in crop production throughout Southeast Asia. As a risk management strategy, crop insurance has been promoted in risk-prone areas in the region to reduce the adverse impacts of climate hazards. However, crop insurance products have not been very popular among farmers and crop growers due to limited coverage amidst high premium as well as apparent subjectivity and bias in crop damage assessment. In recent years, weather index-based insurance (WIBI) products have been proposed to address climate risk more objectively. Issues involved in the implementation of WIBI crop insurance include the determination of appropriate indices in terms of threshold levels, estimation of risk of not meeting the thresholds, and paucity of adequate weather stations from which to gauge or base the threshold values.

Read more: Implementation Issues in Weather Index-based Insurance for Agricultural Production: A Philippine...

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Agricultural Innovation: Options for Appropriate Technologies in Responding to Climate Change
SEARCA-APAN Policy Brief

Agriculture is a key sector providing economic and social development in Southeast Asian countries, where a majority of the region’s population depend on agricultural production as a main source of household income. The implication of global environmental change has extended the agricultural agenda to respond to the drivers of climate change—in the context where agriculture is both a contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a possible mitigating factor through the adjustment of practices and the adoption of new technologies.

The role of agriculture in climate change is better appreciated in relation to the value agriculture contributes to the global economy. The 2010 World Development Report, drawing on analysis from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, calculates that agriculture directly accounts for 14 percent of global GHG emissions in CO2 equivalent and indirectly accounts for another 17 percent of emissions from land use and conversion for crops and pasture. In contrast, the contribution of agriculture to the global GDP at four percent suggests that worldwide agricultural activity is highly GHG intensive (Lybbert and Sumner 2010).

Read more: Agricultural Innovation: Options for Appropriate Technologies in Responding to Climate Change

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by Rex Victor O. Cruz

Any system that is robust or healthy can adapt to climate change. For a watershed to be resilient to climate change, it should thus be properly managed. The ecosystems and resources in the watershed must be conserved, the forests restored, and proper land uses implemented.

Hence, attaining sustainability and resilience in a watershed requires effective governance. Decision support systems should be in place, and policies should be effective. Moreover, there should be capable actors and players. Planning, implementation, and monitoring must likewise be improved.

Read more: Strategies for Attaining Sustainability and Resilience in Watersheds

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by Rex Victor O. Cruz

Watersheds are a landscape of interconnected ecosystems, and it is in the abundance of ecosystems that watersheds derive its importance due to the vast array of ecosystem services that it provides to humanity.

A sustainable watershed is a resilient watershed. In a sustainable watershed, the mechanisms involved to sustain the ecosystems within it are working properly. These mechanisms include soil conservation, water conservation, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation.

Humanity benefits from sustainable watersheds in many ways. A sustainable watershed minimizes flooding; enables water and power sufficiency; and provides vibrant business and industry, healthy population, and productive farmlands. All of these benefits translate to income and welfare gains for society. Ironically, it is also those who benefit from watersheds—the people—who contribute immensely to the degradation of watersheds.

Read more: Watersheds in a Changing Climate: Issues and Challenges

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 5 No. 3  | Miledel Christine C. Quibilan2

Coastal vulnerability assessment (VA) tools aim to provide guidance for coastal climate change adaptation (CCA) planning by measuring the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to a variety of climate-related hazards such as changes in ocean temperature, sea level rise, and increased frequency of more devastating typhoons.

The scope of coastal vulnerability assessment includes fisheries, coastal integrity, or the overall state of the coast and biodiversity therein. The tools used are mostly ecosystem-based with biophysical and socioeconomic components. The scale of application is the coastal barangay (village) with an average coastline of nine kilometers. To learn more about these coastal VA tools,3 refer to the guidebook, which can be downloaded for free at http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/library/guide-vulnerability-assessment-tools-coastal-ecosystems.

Read more: Coastal Vulnerability Assessments: Tools, Training, and Networking

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 5 No. 2 | Roberto Pedro C. Sandoval, Jr.and Hideki Kanamaru3

Though people have already adopted measures to limit the negative effects of climate change, more extensive adaptation is required to reduce vulnerability to climate change. Hence, it is important to assess climate impact and vulnerability as well as the adaptation options employed to increase resilience.

There are generally two types of assessment that can be used to support climate change adaptation:

Read more: Approaches to Assessment of Impacts and Vulnerability to Climate Change and Adaptation Options

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 5 No. 1 | Mozaharul Alam2

Climate change poses a risk to the development and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It affects livelihoods, health, and economic development.

Since climate change has become more of a development issue, there is a need to mainstream climate change adaptation (CCA) into national planning as part of broader policies for development. Development planning should take into account anticipated impacts of climate change particularly on the livelihoods, resilience, and health of the population in poor countries.

Read more: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning

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Technical Report: Current Trends in Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture in Southeast Asia

The growing interest in adaptation engagements reflects policy development that calls for multilevel climate change adaptation. In Southeast Asia, several initiatives have been made particularly under the leadership of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). These include declarations to the 2007 Bali and 2009 Copenhagen UN Conferences on Climate Change and the ASEAN Declaration on Environmental Sustainability that calls for an ASEAN Climate Change Initiative. Southeast Asian countries are signatories to numerous policy instruments such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol with its Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports, the Bali Road Map, and the Cancun Agreements, among many others. 

Read more: Technical Report: Current Trends in Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture in Southeast Asia

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Faces of Vulnerability: Gender, Climate Change, and Disaster
by Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza 

The understanding of vulnerability both at the household and individual level, as well as the sectoral and community level, was enriched by the research on social vulnerability and gender under the project entitled “Building Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Southeast Asia.” The study was conducted in the province of Laguna in the Philippines with the aim of identifying who are vulnerable, and analyzing why they are vulnerable, and how they adapt to the risks of climate change and climatic hazards. The gender perspective in the research process was given emphasis. The study looked into how climate change-induced hazards affected men and women differentially, how they cope with these hazards, and in what household adaptation measures do women play important roles. Findings discussed in this publication came from data generated from a number of methods, including a barangay-level survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and cases from in-depth interviews.

Read more: Faces of Vulnerability: Gender, Climate Change, and Disaster

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