Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 3 | By Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza, Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr., Jamie Kim B. Arias, and Bessie M. Burgos | 2014

Growing scientific evidence for the last three decades has shown that climate change is one of the major serious, if not the main, problems besetting the global community. As a matter of principle and urgency, the Philippines had adopted a policy of climate change response where adaptation is central.
The Context

Being archipelagic in character, and with over 92 M in population in 2010 increasing at an annual rate of 1.89 percent (http://www.census.gov.ph/), more and more households and communities in the Philippines are becoming at risk vis-à-vis the impacts of global climate change. An average of 20 tropical cyclones enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) per year (http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/tc_frame.htm), with an increase of 4.2 in the frequency of cyclones during the period 1990 to 2003 (PAGASA 2001 as cited by IPCC 2007).

Read more: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Climate Change Adaptation

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 2 | By Roberto Sandoval, Jr. and Stephan Baas | 2013

The manifestations of climate change are now felt by many, especially by upland farmers whose agricultural production is vulnerable to the increasingly unpredictable weather conditions. Although the local communities in the Cordillera region have been able to maintain a sustainable relationship with the resources through their indigenous knowledge and practices, climate change has severely affected the region’s agriculture sector. As such, climate change adaptation (CCA) measures in agriculture were developed in Benguet and Ifugao provinces in the Cordillera. Using the participatory action research approach, local stakeholders were capacitated as they were able to identify and enhance their own sustainable agricultural practices and combine these with knowledge-based technologies that are adaptive to climate change. Accordingly, expanding and mainstreaming these CCA agricultural measures would help improve the capacity of the country’s farmers in facing the threats of climate change.

Read more: Adapting to Climate Change: The Cordillera Experience

Knowledge Showcases

International Conference on CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION FOR FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY | Conference Summary Report | January 2013

About 150 researchers, academicians, policymakers, and development workers representing 21 countries attended the International Conference on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation for Food and Environmental Security (ICCCIAFES) held on 21–22 November 2012 at the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. 


Knowledge Showcases

Moving Forward: Southeast Asian Perspectives on Climate Change and Biodiversity

Edited by:
Percy E. Sajise,
Mariliza V. Ticsay,
Gil C. Saguiguit, Jr.

Soft Bound: P 650 ($ 14.90)
Hard Bound: P1,300 ($ 29.90)
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Climate change is a global phenomenon that is being experienced by all levels of society, regardless of race and species, and in all types of ecosystems, regardless of geographic location. It will have diverse effects on biodiversity, which will directly impact on food security, water supply and livelihood among others, especially for the poor and more vulnerable sectors of human society. More importantly, all forms of life including human society are trying their best to adapt and survive.

Read more: Moving Forward: Southeast Asian Perspectives on Climate Change and Biodiversity

Knowledge Showcases

GIS-aided Biophysical Characterization of Southern Leyte Landscape in Relation to Landslide Occurrences
By Beatriz C. Jadina

This study was conducted in Southern Leyte to characterize its biophysical attributes, identify factors influencing landslide occurrences, develop a landslide database, and present recommendations for suitable land use. The major attributes of the province that were mapped using geospatial technologies (geographic information system, global positioning system, and remote sensing) were rock formations and fault lines, seismic occurrences, slope characteristics, elevation, soil series, vegetation/land use, and rainfall characteristics. Some soil properties of the landslide areas were also determined.

The highest frequency (21%) of landslide occurrences in Southern Leyte was observed in Miocene–andesitic, basaltic, dacitic flows, and breccia geologic formation which is associated with the Leyte segment of the Philippine Fault. It occurred at angles greater than 18° and was at the highest frequency (54%) at angles greater than 50° in both concave and convex slope curvatures.

Forest cover in Southern Leyte decreased from 53 percent in 1954 to 38 percent in 1992—a 15 percent drop in almost four decades. This further decreased to 14 percent in 2010, a 24 percent decline in approximately two decades since 1992. Current vegetation is dominated by cultivated crops, coconut, and abaca. The province is mapped as slightly suitable (36%) to moderately suitable (51%), to suitable (13%) for coconut and abaca production. Slightly suitable areas are those found at higher elevation (> 600 meters above sea level) and steep slopes (> 50°), while those suitable are found at lower elevations and gentle slopes.

Read more: GIS-aided Biophysical Characterization of Southern Leyte Landscape in Relation to Landslide...

Knowledge Showcases

Impacts of Cyclone Nargis on Livelihood, Food Security and the Agriculture Sector in Myanmar
By Khin Oo and Theingi Myint

Nowadays, international and regional institutions dedicated to research, training, and extension activities in disaster-prone
countries are emerging. Many contemporary approaches to risk management and reduction, now being discussed and advocated at the international level, have grown out of disaster reduction research and application by developing country researchers and institutions. Natural catastrophes and disasters destroy fixed assets and physical capitals, interrupt production and trade, and divert and deplete savings as well as public and private investments. More than the damage to a country’s economy, the proportion of the land area exposed to a hazard determines the severity of a disaster risk.

Read more: Impacts of Cyclone Nargis on Livelihood, Food Security and the Agriculture Sector in Myanmar

Knowledge Showcases

Climate change, with its impact on agriculture, is emerging as one of the most significant development issues in the region. Climate change, among others, could alter temperature and precipitation regimes over major agricultural production regions; the frequency and intensity of extreme events – typhoon, floods, and droughts; average sea level; and incidence of pests and diseases. Moreover, agriculture is vulnerable to the impacts arising from global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are likely to affect production costs and income opportunities. Furthermore, climate change, combined with the increasing demand for food, feeds, fibre, and fuel, has the potential to irreversibly damage the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with significant consequences for food insecurity (IAASTD 2009). Thus, the relationship between climate change and agriculture is two-way: agriculture significantly contributes to climate change and climate change, in general, adversely affects agriculture.

Thus, it is becoming extremely important to put forward discourses on climate change and agriculture in Southeast Asia within the framework of the sector’s role in meeting the objectives of developing countries for food security and sustainable development. This report is among the series of publications that APAN and SEARCA committed as a part of knowledge stocktaking on climate change in Asia and the Pacific. This report aims to identify the current issues and challenges in the agriculture sector at the national and sub-regional levels by providing information on the anticipated impacts of climate change on agriculture and food security in the region, and on the ecosystems and communities most affected or most vulnerable. The current issues and challenges that hinder the strengthening of the ability to cope with climate change and its impacts are identified at the sub-regional and national levels.

Read more: A Review of Issues and Challenges in Climate Change and Agriculture in Southeast Asia

Knowledge Showcases

Improving the Sub-national Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Agriculture

Climate change planning capacities and processes vary among the various Southeast Asian countries. But common is the difficulty faced in mobilising local action. In Cambodia, the need for policy that supports climate change adaptation (CCA) mainstreaming into national policies, planning and budgetary processes has affected mainstreaming efforts at sub-national levels (AKP 2010a).

In Vietnam, provinces without CC projects are not aware of the issue and have not yet taken any action (AKP 2010b). On the other hand, the Philippines has been responsive in terms of policy. Its Republic Act 9729, approved in 2009, mainstreamed CC into government policy formulations, established the Framework Strategy and Program on Climate Change, and created its Climate Change Commission. The year before, a memorandum circular was issued encouraging all executive councils at the provincial and municipal levels to implement CCA and disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures. Despite this policy support, local government units (LGUs) have a hard time accessing funds and operationalising CCA in development planning (AKP 2012).

Read more: SEARCA-APAN Policy Brief on Improving the Sub-national Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in...

Knowledge Showcases

Socioeconomics of Climate Change in the Philippines: A Literature Synthesis (1990-2010)
By Asa Jose Sajise, Mercedita Sombilla, and Rico Ancog

Introduction and Framework of Analysis

According to the Initial Communication of the Philippines, the Philippines is among the first countries to respond to the challenge of the climate change phenomenon. As early as May 8, 1991, the Philippine government had created the Inter-agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC) by virtue of Administrative Order No. 220. Since then, several initiatives such as action-oriented programs and policies have followed to address climate change. Recently, the Philippine government established the Philippine Climate Change Commission by virtue of the Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009 (Republic Act (RA) 9729), which was signed into law on October 23, 2009. The Commission is tasked, among other things, to formulate and implement plans for the country to better respond to natural disasters. Even at the local government level, proactive Local Government Units (LGUs) like the Province of Albay and the City of Sorsogon have initiated programs and policies to address climate change.

While we have made headway in the science and prediction of events related to climate change, there have been few socio-economic literatures on climate change in the Philippines. We have yet to document more extensively the processes and dynamics of human behavior and choices as affected by climate change. How do people autonomously adapt to climate change? 

Read more: Socioeconomics of Climate Change in the Philippines: A Literature Synthesis (1990-2010)

Knowledge Showcases

Strategies of the Agriculture Sector in Korea for the Post-Kyoto Regime
By Chang-Gil Kim | Korea Rural Economic Institute

The comprehensive consideration of internal and external changes in conditions pertaining to the post-2012 Kyoto Protocol scheme indicates that Korea is highly likely to be mandated to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions starting the second commitment period (2013-2017). The new emission cut mandate under the Kyoto Protocol could serve as a good opportunity for Korea, depending on how it reacts. This paper analyzes the impact of the Kyoto Protocol implementation on the agriculture sector and suggests strategies for the post-Kyoto regime. The analysis shows that the agriculture sector’s technologies for reducing GHG emission have the potential of cutting substantial amounts of emissions.

Read more: Strategies of the Agriculture Sector in Korea for the Post-Kyoto Regime

Knowledge Showcases

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