Adaptation Notes

Adaptation Notes

The Agriculture and Development Notes – Climate Change Adaptation (ADN-CCA) Series showcases climate change related efforts and mechanisms in Southeast Asian countries in agriculture and rural development.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 3 No. 5 | By John M. Pulhin2

The warming of the climate system is unequivocal. It is with this characteristic that recent climate-related disasters, including natural hazards, global temperature rise, and extreme weather events, among many, cemented the need for implementing climate change adaptation (CCA) in the Southeast Asian region. The capacity of Southeast Asians to adapt determines the resilience of the region to cope with the current and future changes in climate. Moreover, adaptation reduces the detrimental effects of climate change, while capitalizing on opportunities and beneficial potential impacts that will diminish the vulnerability of the agriculture sector in the region. However, CCA mechanisms in agriculture, in order to maximize its effectiveness, must be mainstreamed into national and local policies highlighting the importance of integration between policy makers, researchers, and the champions of farming and fishing communities.

Southeast Asia is widely considered as one of the world’s most vulnerable regions to climate change. This is caused, among others, by the region’s heavy reliance on agriculture—one of the sectors that requires particular attention in adaptation—for providing livelihoods, especially for those at or below the poverty lines. Hence, agriculture accounts for 11 percent of GDP in 2006 and 43.3 percent of employment in 2004 in Southeast Asia (ADB 2009).

Read more: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in the Agriculture Sector in Southeast Asia: Challenges...

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 4 | By Jaimie Kim B. Arias1, Rowena A. Dorado2, Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza3, and Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr.4 | 2014

Floods are among the most devastating hazards confronting the Philippines. Unfortunately, many households and communities are becoming more at risk because of improper land use and rapid environmental degradation, coupled with the impacts of global climate change. The lakeshore municipalities in the Sta. Cruz River Watershed are no exception, given that the area is contiguous to the largest lake in the Philippines—the Laguna de Bay.

Recent experience has shown that flooding can be very costly as it can result in the destruction of private assets as well as public infrastructure. It can also lead to loss of production and income, displacement of communities, spread of illnesses and diseases, injury, and even death.
A study5 conducted by researchers from the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) revealed that the average value of direct property damage incurred by households per flooding event is about PHP 10,450 (USD 261.25)6. This is a hefty sum given that the average household income is only about PHP 5,125 (USD 128.13) per month.

Read more: Flood Early Warning System: Viable Low-cost Adaptation for Lakeshore Municipalities in the Sta....

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 3 | By Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza, Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr., Jamie Kim B. Arias, and Bessie M. Burgos | 2014

Growing scientific evidence for the last three decades has shown that climate change is one of the major serious, if not the main, problems besetting the global community. As a matter of principle and urgency, the Philippines had adopted a policy of climate change response where adaptation is central.
The Context

Being archipelagic in character, and with over 92 M in population in 2010 increasing at an annual rate of 1.89 percent (http://www.census.gov.ph/), more and more households and communities in the Philippines are becoming at risk vis-à-vis the impacts of global climate change. An average of 20 tropical cyclones enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) per year (http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/tc_frame.htm), with an increase of 4.2 in the frequency of cyclones during the period 1990 to 2003 (PAGASA 2001 as cited by IPCC 2007).

Read more: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Climate Change Adaptation

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 2 | By Roberto Sandoval, Jr. and Stephan Baas | 2013

The manifestations of climate change are now felt by many, especially by upland farmers whose agricultural production is vulnerable to the increasingly unpredictable weather conditions. Although the local communities in the Cordillera region have been able to maintain a sustainable relationship with the resources through their indigenous knowledge and practices, climate change has severely affected the region’s agriculture sector. As such, climate change adaptation (CCA) measures in agriculture were developed in Benguet and Ifugao provinces in the Cordillera. Using the participatory action research approach, local stakeholders were capacitated as they were able to identify and enhance their own sustainable agricultural practices and combine these with knowledge-based technologies that are adaptive to climate change. Accordingly, expanding and mainstreaming these CCA agricultural measures would help improve the capacity of the country’s farmers in facing the threats of climate change.

Read more: Adapting to Climate Change: The Cordillera Experience

Knowledge Showcases

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