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Adaptation Notes

Adaptation Notes

The Agriculture and Development Notes – Climate Change Adaptation (ADN-CCA) Series showcases climate change related efforts and mechanisms in Southeast Asian countries in agriculture and rural development.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 3 No. 6

Despite the numerous efforts initiated by the government and nongovernmental organizations in addressing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction management, the Philippines still remains one of the riskiest places in the world. This is because the country lacks the capacity to cope and adapt to natural hazards, particularly to the threats posed by climate change. The Philippines then needs to implement climate-smart disaster risk management plans and initiatives in order to address the future risks posed by climate change.

In its World Risk Index, the UN World Risk Report cited the Philippines as one of the riskiest places out of the 173 countries in the world, ranking third next to the small island nations of Vanuatu and Tonga. The ranking was not only due to the Philippines’ geography and location that makes it prone to natural calamities, but due to its vulnerability to disasters as measured by the presence/lack of public infrastructure, medical services, prevailing nutritional situation, governance, level of education, and availability of insurance.

Read more: Climate-smart Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 3 No. 5 | By John M. Pulhin2

The warming of the climate system is unequivocal. It is with this characteristic that recent climate-related disasters, including natural hazards, global temperature rise, and extreme weather events, among many, cemented the need for implementing climate change adaptation (CCA) in the Southeast Asian region. The capacity of Southeast Asians to adapt determines the resilience of the region to cope with the current and future changes in climate. Moreover, adaptation reduces the detrimental effects of climate change, while capitalizing on opportunities and beneficial potential impacts that will diminish the vulnerability of the agriculture sector in the region. However, CCA mechanisms in agriculture, in order to maximize its effectiveness, must be mainstreamed into national and local policies highlighting the importance of integration between policy makers, researchers, and the champions of farming and fishing communities.

Southeast Asia is widely considered as one of the world’s most vulnerable regions to climate change. This is caused, among others, by the region’s heavy reliance on agriculture—one of the sectors that requires particular attention in adaptation—for providing livelihoods, especially for those at or below the poverty lines. Hence, agriculture accounts for 11 percent of GDP in 2006 and 43.3 percent of employment in 2004 in Southeast Asia (ADB 2009).

Read more: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in the Agriculture Sector in Southeast Asia: Challenges...

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 4 | By Jaimie Kim B. Arias1, Rowena A. Dorado2, Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza3, and Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr.4 | 2014

Floods are among the most devastating hazards confronting the Philippines. Unfortunately, many households and communities are becoming more at risk because of improper land use and rapid environmental degradation, coupled with the impacts of global climate change. The lakeshore municipalities in the Sta. Cruz River Watershed are no exception, given that the area is contiguous to the largest lake in the Philippines—the Laguna de Bay.

Recent experience has shown that flooding can be very costly as it can result in the destruction of private assets as well as public infrastructure. It can also lead to loss of production and income, displacement of communities, spread of illnesses and diseases, injury, and even death.
A study5 conducted by researchers from the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) revealed that the average value of direct property damage incurred by households per flooding event is about PHP 10,450 (USD 261.25)6. This is a hefty sum given that the average household income is only about PHP 5,125 (USD 128.13) per month.

Read more: Flood Early Warning System: Viable Low-cost Adaptation for Lakeshore Municipalities in the Sta....

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 3 No. 3 | By Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza, Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr., Jamie Kim B. Arias, and Bessie M. Burgos | 2014

Growing scientific evidence for the last three decades has shown that climate change is one of the major serious, if not the main, problems besetting the global community. As a matter of principle and urgency, the Philippines had adopted a policy of climate change response where adaptation is central.
The Context

Being archipelagic in character, and with over 92 M in population in 2010 increasing at an annual rate of 1.89 percent (http://www.census.gov.ph/), more and more households and communities in the Philippines are becoming at risk vis-à-vis the impacts of global climate change. An average of 20 tropical cyclones enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) per year (http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/tc_frame.htm), with an increase of 4.2 in the frequency of cyclones during the period 1990 to 2003 (PAGASA 2001 as cited by IPCC 2007).

Read more: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Climate Change Adaptation

Knowledge Showcases

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