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Adaptation Notes

Adaptation Notes

The Agriculture and Development Notes – Climate Change Adaptation (ADN-CCA) Series showcases climate change related efforts and mechanisms in Southeast Asian countries in agriculture and rural development.

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 2 No. 2 | By Ronaldo Golez1 | Dumangas, Ilo-ilo2 | 2012

Dumangas, Iloilo is a coastal town located in the island of Panay, Visayas, Philippines with most of its area devoted to agriculture and fisheries. However, the town experiences two extreme conditions: drought during the dry season, and flooding during the rainy season—where for the latter, 65% of the total area of Dumangas is usually inundated. Consequently, farmers experience difficulty in monitoring and maintaining their crops.  

As the local government’s initial step to help the farmers adjust to the adverse impacts of climate change, the municipal government of Dumangas started the Climate Field School (CFS) Program in 2007. The CFS Program was first launched and applied in Indramayu, Indonesia. The Municipality of Dumangas is the first in the Philippines, and second in Asia, to adopt this program. Aside from being able to help the farmers increase farm production, the CFS program enhances the farmers’ adaptive capacity, while addressing poverty and reducing vulnerability and their causes.  

In 2008, Dumangas had a significant increase in rice production. It even surpassed the municipality of Pototan, Iloilo—the biggest rice producer in Western Visayas. In 2011, Dumangas continued to be one of the dominant rice producers. The municipality and the farmers saw this success as a result of the CFS program. CFS enabled them to monitor the changing weather and adjust their farming practices. Hence, they were able to maintain good quality agricultural products despite the continuous threats posted by climate change.

 

Read more: Climate Field School: An Innovative Approach to Agricultural Adaptation

Knowledge Showcases

adn-cca-vol2-3Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 2 No. 3 | By Ron P. Crisostomo1 and Fr. Francis Lucas | 2012

One of the oldest towns in Quezon, Philippines is Infanta—a first class municipality3 serving as home to a population of more than 60,000.  Infanta is located on the eastern coast of the northern island of the Philippines. It directly faces the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra Madre mountain range, which makes it a site vulnerable to hydro-meteorological disasters and sea level rise.  For their livelihood, residents of Infanta rely on its agricultural, fisheries, trade, and services sector.  

On 29 November 2004, tropical depression “Winnie” hit Infanta and its neighboring towns, General Nakar and Real, with an abnormally heavy rainfall.  Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) - Infanta Weather Station measured a rainfall amount of approximately 372 mm in less than 24 hours.  The said heavy rainfall, which was statistically equivalent to 18 days worth of rain in a typically rainy November month, caused massive landslides in the upstream area of the Agos River and eventually, flashfloods that inundated the whole municipality.  The disaster left 165 people dead, 11 injured, and more than 4, 000 houses damaged. Public infrastructures and utilities worth PHP 300 M were also ruined. In addition to this, the agricultural sector of Infanta was greatly affected. Damages to crops, livestock, and fisheries amounted to PHP 103.3 M.

Read more: Gearing up towards Community-based Climate Change Program

Knowledge Showcases

ADN_CCA_Vol_1_No_4Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 1. No. 4 | By Rogelio N. Concepcion, Maria Victoria O. Espaldon, Sylvie Lewicki-Dhainaut, Ranell Martin M. Dedicatoria, and Edwin R. Abucay | 2011

The Philippines has recently been experiencing the adverse effects of climate change, and its most common manifestation is the increasing frequency of extreme events like El Nino, La Nina, and strong typhoons.

In 2009, the country greatly suffered when it was successively hit by super typhoons Ondoy (Ketsana), Pepeng (Parma), and Quedan (Melor).

According to the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), the country’s climate monitoring body, an average of 20 typhoons enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) annually, of which, about nine to ten have combined strong winds and rainfall which can disrupt agricultural production and cause damage to infrastructure.

Read more: Coping with Extreme Climatic Events: Stories of Resiliency in the Philippines

Knowledge Showcases

ADN_CCA_Vol1_No3Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol 1. No. 3 | By Bun Chan Meta | 2011

Chambok is a community in Kampong Speu province, Cambodia. It lies on the border of Kirirom National Park, where the eastern slope of Cardamom Mountain can be found.

Commonly, villagers earn money by home gardening and animal raising. However, some parts of its land are being used in mining, leaving less arable area for people to grow crops. Because of this, villagers resort to logging and destroying the forests for timber and non-timber products, which they sell for a living.  

Ninety-four percent (94%) of the people in the community illegally log trees, hunt wildlife, and burn wood for charcoal. All these activities affect biodiversity and natural resources. Furthermore, it affects the people’s livelihood since they rely on forest products to earn money. It also makes the village vulnerable to drought. Sixty-six percent (66%) of the people in Chambok does not have other sources of income. They have become poorer because of the lack of arable lands, land use change, erosion, use of chemical pesticides, and drought. Thus, some of them migrate to other places for work.  

Read more: Community-Based Ecotourism: Livelihood cum Adaptation Strategy for Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia

Knowledge Showcases

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