Adaptation Notes

Adaptation Notes

The Agriculture and Development Notes – Climate Change Adaptation (ADN-CCA) Series showcases climate change related efforts and mechanisms in Southeast Asian countries in agriculture and rural development.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 8 No. 4 | Jaime A. Manalo IV

391 MANALO COVER Climate change is an extremely urgent issue that must be addressed, especially in the agriculture sector. In 2014, the Philippines ranked ninth globally as most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (Climate Change Commission 2014).

 Central to addressing the impacts of climate change in agriculture is improving the ways by which information on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) reaches the farmers.

Presently, the extension system is fraught with several issues brought mainly by its devolution (Saliot 2014). Aging extension workers, mobility issues, among others make it difficult to have a seamless extension network in the country.

In 2014, the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) explored the possibility of mobilizing Technical Vocational high school students to serve as information providers of CSA. This was part of PhilRice’s Infomediary Campaign, which is a youth engagement initiative in agriculture. Towards an additional strategy in doing extension, the researchers looked into (1) evidence of searching and sharing information on rice by infomediaries, (2) the characteristics of infomediaries who are most likely to share information on rice to farmers, (3) the types of information that can be shared by the infomediaries, (4) the infomediation process that transpired in sharing information, and (5) evidence of use of information passed on in the process.

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Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 8 No. 3 | Prof. Pastor L. Malabrigo, Jr.2

BINHIPlanting native trees is vital in restoring the forest cover and its biodiversity resources. For any reforestation effort to flourish, however, people must appreciate the key role that native trees portray.
The decline of the forest cover of the Philippines began during the three-century Spanish colonization. Reduccion, encomienda, and hacienda caused 6M hectare (ha) decrease in the country's total forest resource. The greatest forest degradation in the country’s history was during the American period when Philippine Mahogany was famous in the world market, and log export constituted the main sources of the national income.

The forest cover continued its downturn at the end of World War II, and 20th century ended with only 18.3 percent forest cover remaining. In 2010, the total forest cover was 6.84M ha, based on the Philippine Forestry Statistics. By 2011, the Philippines landed fourth on Conservation International's list of "World's 10 Most Threatened Forest Hotspots," with 7 percent remaining forest, predominantly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests in 2011. Of the 694 threatened plant species in the country, 539 are endemic, including the Philippine dipterocarps (e.g., ironwood, ebony, oaks, and nutmegs).

Now, Philippine biodiversity remains to be one of the most threatened in the world, with 380 threatened tree species of which 40 are critically endangered, 57 are endangered, and 77 are vulnerable. The most beautiful and unique tree species found only in the country are in serious danger of being extinct forever.

Read more: BINHI Tree for the Future: Debunking the Reasons Not to Plant Native Trees

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 7 No. 5 | David I. Gustafson2

ADNCCA 7-5The world’s food systems face an escalating challenge to meet accelerating demand for sustainably-produced, nutritious food in the face of multiple threats, including human population pressure, dwindling resources, and degraded ecosystems. About 1 billion people lack sufficient food and about 2 billion people suffer from a number of micronutrient deficiencies.

Paradoxically, more than 2 billion adults are overweight, of which 500 million are obese. These current challenges to food systems and nutrition security cast an even more ominous shadow into the future when they are considered in the context of intensifying climate change. The fifth assessment report from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlighted the effects of climate change and water availability on crop yields; the results indicate largely negative impacts on food prices and food accessibility. The US Third National Climate Assessment report also emphasized food security threats due to climate change effects on food processing, storage, transportation, and retailing. Indeed, the US team that produced this national assessment took the unusual step of issuing a special report, prompted by recent extreme weather events (i.e., drought, wildfire, storms, and flooding).

Read more: Assessing Sustainable Nutrition Security: The Role of Food Systems

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 6 No. 2 | Majah Leah V. Ravago2, James A. Roumasset3, and Karl Jandoc4

The Philippines is the second on the list of nations which are prone to disasters, according to the 2014 World Risk Report of the United Nations University. The country is highly exposed to natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, tropical cyclones, and floods.

This vulnerability is heightened by climate change as it affects weather patterns among other natural environmental occurrences. Projections from meteorologists showed that from 2020 to 2050, wet seasons will be wetter and the dry seasons will be drier. Eighteen to 20 typhoons are expected every year with flooding projected in different parts of the country.

Read more: Helping Farm Households Cope with Climate Change and Adverse Events

Knowledge Showcases

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