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Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 8 No. 4 | Jaime A. Manalo IV

391 MANALO COVER Climate change is an extremely urgent issue that must be addressed, especially in the agriculture sector. In 2014, the Philippines ranked ninth globally as most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (Climate Change Commission 2014).

 Central to addressing the impacts of climate change in agriculture is improving the ways by which information on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) reaches the farmers.

Presently, the extension system is fraught with several issues brought mainly by its devolution (Saliot 2014). Aging extension workers, mobility issues, among others make it difficult to have a seamless extension network in the country.

In 2014, the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) explored the possibility of mobilizing Technical Vocational high school students to serve as information providers of CSA. This was part of PhilRice’s Infomediary Campaign, which is a youth engagement initiative in agriculture. Towards an additional strategy in doing extension, the researchers looked into (1) evidence of searching and sharing information on rice by infomediaries, (2) the characteristics of infomediaries who are most likely to share information on rice to farmers, (3) the types of information that can be shared by the infomediaries, (4) the infomediation process that transpired in sharing information, and (5) evidence of use of information passed on in the process.

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Knowledge Showcases

cc philriceInfomediary Campaign – creating new communication pathway in agricultural extension for remote rice farming communities through mobilizing young people to serve as Infomediaries.

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To know more about the Philippine Rice Research Institution (PhilRice)'s Infomediary Campaign, visit http://www.philrice.gov.ph/the-infomediary-campaign/.                 

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This manual is aimed at providing a knowledge base on climate change, especially catered for teachers and trainers. The manual will introduce the basics of climate change – what is it, why is it happening, what are the projected impacts, and what can be done. It has a strong focus on the science of climate change which is essential in providing a better understanding of the broader picture – why climate change is happening and how to better address the challenge.

Also, this manual aims to bring climate change closer to the youth by providing a local context. It explains the observed and projected climatic changes as well as the vulnerabilities of the Philippines. It recognizes the importance of engaging the local government in educating the youth. Their participation and support in terms of providing information related to climate change in the city or municipality is important in order to better understand the direct impacts of climate change to their communities.

Lastly, this manual could aid in catalyzing youth action towards a low-carbon and climate-resilient future. It provides options for mitigation and adaptation actions that can be adopted by the youth, as well as youth-led initiatives in the Philippines and around the world. This is crucial because the real challenge goes beyond raising awareness, but inducing behavioral changes in order to truly address climate change.

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Source: ICLEI

Knowledge Showcases

Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 8 No. 3 | Prof. Pastor L. Malabrigo, Jr.2

BINHIPlanting native trees is vital in restoring the forest cover and its biodiversity resources. For any reforestation effort to flourish, however, people must appreciate the key role that native trees portray.
 
The decline of the forest cover of the Philippines began during the three-century Spanish colonization. Reduccion, encomienda, and hacienda caused 6M hectare (ha) decrease in the country's total forest resource. The greatest forest degradation in the country’s history was during the American period when Philippine Mahogany was famous in the world market, and log export constituted the main sources of the national income.

The forest cover continued its downturn at the end of World War II, and 20th century ended with only 18.3 percent forest cover remaining. In 2010, the total forest cover was 6.84M ha, based on the Philippine Forestry Statistics. By 2011, the Philippines landed fourth on Conservation International's list of "World's 10 Most Threatened Forest Hotspots," with 7 percent remaining forest, predominantly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests in 2011. Of the 694 threatened plant species in the country, 539 are endemic, including the Philippine dipterocarps (e.g., ironwood, ebony, oaks, and nutmegs).

Now, Philippine biodiversity remains to be one of the most threatened in the world, with 380 threatened tree species of which 40 are critically endangered, 57 are endangered, and 77 are vulnerable. The most beautiful and unique tree species found only in the country are in serious danger of being extinct forever.

Read more: BINHI Tree for the Future: Debunking the Reasons Not to Plant Native Trees

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adapting“Adapting and Living below 2o C: bridging gaps in policies and practices” call for harnessing more local involvement in integrated adaptation planning, providing access to relevant sources of financing and technologies, provisioning coherent capacity building, involving private sector, and tapping knowledge networks including the Asia Pacific Adaptation Network (APAN) for replicable adaptation measures and collective learning to support effective and inclusive adaptation planning and implementation. Over 900 participants including policymakers, scientists, donors, youth, and representatives from over 50 countries discussed opportunities and agreed to collaborate on solutions, integrated approaches, and extended an invitation to new partners especially the private, technology and finance sectors, that could help address the gaps in financing, technology, and capacity building. Inspired by the sincere commitment of the host government to inform Sri Lanka’s future climate actions with the Forum outcomes, many countries, partners and participants expressed their commitment to take on the messages from the 5th Forum and turn them into action, for a climate-resilient Asia Pacific region.-Colombo, Sri Lanka October 2016

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Picture12017
by Hoang Ha Anh et al, Imas Sukaesih Sitanggang et al, Bounxou Xayxana et al, Eriberto D. Salang et al, Thomas L. Cardente II et al, Quyen Dinh Ha et al 
ISSN: 2012-4635 (Soft cover)

For this particular volume, due attention is given to climate change adaptation, mitigation, and resiliency because of its negative effects on the agricultural sector. Under SEARCA’s Tenth Five-Year Plan focused on Inclusive and Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development (ISARD), climate change is flagged as a priority concern as it hinders the sector’s ability to provide food for a growing population that continues to struggle with poverty and hunger.


Contents:

  • Vulnerability Assessment of Rice Farming Provinces to Climate Change in the Red River Delta in Vietnam
    Hoang Ha Anh, Carmelita M. Rebancos, Rico C. Ancog, and Decibel V. Faustino-Eslava
  • Hotspots’ Occurrence Classification Based on Physical, Socio-economic,
    and Peatlands Data
    Imas Sukaesih Sitanggang, Razali Yaakob, Norwati Mustapha, and A.N. Ainuddin
  • Community Organizing for Flood Risk Reduction in Xieng Ngeun District, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR
    Bounxou Xayxana and Josefina T. Dizon
  • Carbon Sequestration in Faraon and Adtuyon Soils under Different Cropping and Tillage Systems in Zamboanga Peninsula
    Eriberto D. Salang and Reynaldo A. Comia
  • Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change through Spiked Pepper (Piper aduncum L.)
    in Southern Mindanao
    Thomas L. Cardente II, Teodoro R. Villanueva, Myrna G. Carandang, Leonardo M. Florece,
  • Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Communities in the Red River Delta Biological Reserve, Vietnam
    Quyen Dinh Ha, Josefina T. Dizon, Agnes C. Rola, Maria Ana T. Quimbo, and Lynlei L. Pintorand Nelson M. Pampolina

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Knowledge Showcases

366 20170615164905 dps 2016 3 mac nhu binh cover kris front2017
48 pp. 
by Mac Nhu Binh, Le Van An, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy, Ngo Thi huong Giang, Ho Thi Thu Hoai, Truong Van Dan 

ISSN: 19086164 (Hard cover)

Climate change is a major global concern that greatly affects people, including their source of living. In 2010, the Asian Development Bank reported that Vietnam is one of the five countries most severely affected by climate change. About 70 percent of the country's total population lives along coastal areas and in islands. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the impacts of climate change on aquaculture in Phu Vang district (Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam), and (2) develop a climate change adaptation model for aquaculture. Data on impact of climate change to aquaculture production were gathered through participatory rural appraisal tools, while spatial changes in water quality were determined through Geographic Information System (GIS). Experimental polyculture models were set up in the five study-site communes to determine the aquaculture practices that could be disseminated to small farmers. It was found out that Phu Vang had suffered heavy losses from climate change brought about by a combination of droughts and prolonged heat waves, and cold weather that lasted longer. Floods and typhoons have likewise occurred with stronger intensities, and tide amplitude has changed drastically. All these affected agricultural activities, especially aquaculture, which is considered as one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change impacts. As a result, many households shifted from intensive to extensive culture, and some even left their ponds for other jobs. The limited understanding and capacity of people on climate change aggravated the situation, affecting their ability to respond and mitigate negative impacts. Water quality, specifically for aquaculture, was also affected as a result of rising temperature, prolonged droughts, rainfall, flooding, and salinization, which in turn reduced productivity and yield. Meanwhile, polyculture models of aquaculture implemented for this study brought high economic returns, and could be promising to replicate in various communes of Phu Vang district. The following are the primary recommendations to mitigate climate change impact in aquaculture and to facilitate sustainable livelihood for coastal people: capacitate communities and government in climate change adaptation and mitigation; expand promising aquaculture practices, area, infrastructure, and marketing of produce; and implement policies to mitigate damages of climate change to aquaculture and the community as a whole. 

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Knowledge Showcases

emerging This report aims to fill a need for the latest thinking on climate change adaptation (CCA) in the Asia-Pacific region, thus the members of the Asia Pacific Adaptation Network (APAN)* produced this report titled Emerging Climate Change Adaptation Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region to address pertinent and relevant issues in the region and sub-regions. This report aims to raising awareness and building the capacity of policymakers to deal with CCA.

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Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

pbs 2016-3POLICY BRIEF SERIES | PBS 2016-3
by Aisa O. Manlosa and Harold Glenn A. Valera

Flooding has increased in frequency in various parts of the country, causing damage to thousands of households every year. It directly affects communities through damage to livelihood and properties, loss of earning, and health hazards. Households dependent on agriculture for livelihood are particularly vulnerable because of the negative impact of flooding to productivity.

Damage assessments following flood events are regularly done to determine extent of loss and to identify critical areas for intervention. However, these are often macroscale assessments, which
do not necessarily generate information that could be useful for policymaking. At the municipal level, planning for disaster mitigation and adaptation strategies are devolved and should be operationalized. This study sought to determine microscale damage estimates of the largest flood event in the history of Jabonga, in Agusan del Norte, in southern Philippines. Jabonga is a lakeside municipality adjacent to Lake Mainit, the fourth largest lake in the Philippines.

Data and Method

The municipality of Jabonga is located in Caraga Region, which was classified as part of the poorest cluster in 2009. Thirty-nine percent (39%) of the region’s total employment in 2010 is in the agriculture sector (Bureau of Agricultural Statistics 2011). The agriculture dependency of the municipality is higher than the regional rate, with 60 percent of the population either partly or fully dependent on farming. Seven of the municipality’s 15 barangays are prone to flooding. Since 2005, between 914 to 2,909 households in Jabonga have been annually affected by floods. On the average, farms in hazard zones are inundated for 32 days, while residential areas are flooded for 30 days. During the flooding event in the first quarter of 2011, 71 percent of the houses in the flood hazard zone sank, and the livelihood of 61 percent of the household population was affected.

Read more: Impact of Flooding on Agricultural Livelihoods in Jabonga, Agusan del Norte

Knowledge Showcases

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