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Knowledge Showcases

Knowledge Showcases

K-SHOWCASES contains experience notes, adaptation notes, technical reports, stories on good practices, and other SEARCA publications related to climate change adaptation in Southeast Asia.

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 8 No. 5Mac Nhu Binh, Le Duc Ngoan, Le Thi Hoa Sen, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy, Jennifer Bond, Truong Van Dan, and Le Thi Hong Phuong

Year: 2018

ISSN:  2225-9694 (Print)

Vietnam is one of the five countries predicted to be the most affected by climate change due to its long coastlines; high concentration of population and economic activity in coastal areas; and heavy reliance on agriculture, natural resources, and forestry (Word Bank 2011).

Located in Central Vietnam, Thua Thien Hue’s agricultural and fisheries sectors have always been negatively affected by climate change. Recognizing the problem, in recent years, Thua Thien Hue province has developed many policies and action strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Thua Thien Hue Provincial People’s Community assigned the responsibility to the Department of Agricultural and Rural Development (DARD) and the Department of Natural Resource and Environment to carry out the Provincial Target Program on climate change. Sadly, the program implementation has been said to primarily focus on building response capacity, such as having annual evacuation plans, training people in disaster drills, and providing weather data to local authorities; lacking a long-term planning perspective (Mendoza 2014).

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WG2The Oscar M. Lopez Center (OML), together with the Climate Change Commission, announces the release of the Philippine Climate Change Assessment Working Group 2: Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation report.

Climate change is one of the most serious threats faced by humanity—a multifaceted issue that will be universally felt. As such, it is critical that we better understand how current and future vulnerabilities and sensitivities will impact the different sectors of our society. A firmer grasp on these issues can serve as a guide for climate-smart and timely interventions that can build and further develop our resilience.

This new report, prepared by Filipino Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) authors and other leading scientists and experts in their field of study, presents an assessment of the current understanding of climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation in the Philippines. It focuses on critical areas, namely ecosystems, freshwater resources, coastal systems and low-lying areas, agriculture and fisheries, and human health.

The report is the second from the three-volume Philippine Climate Change Assessment series, which synthesizes scientific information from international and local literature in order to provide an assessment of climate change for the Philippines and identify gaps in the scientific literature.

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Source: OML

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WG1Climate change is one of the most serious threats faced by humanity—a multifaceted issue that will be universally felt. As such, it is critical that we better understand how current and future vulnerabilities and sensitivities will impact the different sectors of our society. A firmer grasp on these issues can serve as a guide for climate-smart and timely interventions that can build and further develop our resilience.

In 2017, the Oscar M. Lopez Center (OML) published the Philippine Climate Change Assessment Working Group 1: The Physical Science Basis. It covered global and local climate changes, the drivers of local climate change, as well as projections for future changes in climate.

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Source: OML

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This study analyzed the factors that influence the adoption of rice and corn insurance and the extent of GAP adoption as a resiliency measure to climate change. Specifically, the study investigated GAP technologies related to pest and disease resilience in rice and corn production, determined the extent of awareness of farmers about these technologies, and analyzed uptake patterns and the determinants of the degree of GAP adoption. The relationship between rice and corn insurance and GAP was also assessed. A probit regression was used to examine the determinants of rice and corn insurance adoption. For corn, a Poisson regression was used to analyze the factors that influence the extent of GAP adoption and its relationship with corn insurance. The analysis contributes to the accumulating literature on crop insurance in two ways. First, this paper estimated the determinants of rice and corn insurance in the Philippines. Second, the importance of rice and corn insurance and other socio-economic and behavioral factors on the extent of GAP adoption was examined.

Results of this study showed that the adoption of crop insurance in the country is still wanting. Targeting certain farmers with specific characteristics can enhance the adoption of crop insurance. In particular, crop insurance providers can target rice farmers who are male, members of farmers’ associations, and have access to capital and remittances because they are more likely to insure their crops. Similarly, farmers with relatively larger planting areas can be targeted since they have a higher probability of insuring their crops.

For corn, on the other hand, the most important finding was the positive and significant effects of credit and farmers’ organization on corn insurance adoption. The strong positive effects suggest that broadening the corn insurance market can be effectively undertaken by targeting borrowing farmers and those affiliated to farmers’ organizations. Priority can be given to farmers with access to roads but located farther away from the market.

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In the Philippines, about 70 percent of the population lives in rural areas and majority are small farmers whose livelihood depends on agriculture. The agriculture sector provides food for the Filipinos and contributes a major portion to export earnings; however, owing to the country’s geographic location, the sector faces various hazards that make agricultural insurance both urgent and indispensable.

The Philippines is situated in the Pacific Ring of Fire and along the typhoon belt of the Western North Pacific Basin, where more than 60 percent of tropical cyclones enter or originate. It experiences an average of 20 typhoons annually; about five of these typhoons, including related floods, severely damaged crops, livestock, and other properties. It also experiences droughts in varying degrees and with different effects. Aside from extreme weather events and adverse climatic conditions, the Philippines is exposed to other risks such as pest and disease infestations, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions.

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Policy Roundtable on Improving the Agricultural Insurance Program to Enhance Resilience to Climate Change in Southeast Asia, which was conducted by the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), in collaboration with the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) and the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC), and in cooperation with the Food Security Center of the University of Hohenheim.

The Policy Roundtable, which was held on 29–30 July 2015, aimed to (1) share knowledge and experiences on various facets of agricultural insurance; (2) identify key issues and challenges related to agricultural insurance; (3) explore  possible  partnerships between  and among governments, development organizations, and other stakeholders to actively collaborate on research, knowledge management, capacity building, and other activities; and (4) identify policy directions and recommendations for an enabling environment toward an improved agricultural insurance program.

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379 20171010173229 prt improving the agricultural insurance program web
 
2017
ISBN: 978-971-560-187-0 (Soft cover)
978-971-560-188-7 (e-ISBN)
 

The Policy Roundtable was jointly organized by the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), the Philippine Rice Research Institute of the Department of Agriculture, and the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation, with the support of the University of Hohenheim's Food Security Center.

As part of SEARCA's policy roundtable series on various topics in agricultural and rural development, the 12th Policy Roundtable session was developed in order to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To share knowledge and experiences on various facets of agricultural insurance in Southeast Asia;
  2. To identify key issues and challenges in agricultural insurance to enhance resilience to climate change;
  3. To explore possible partnerships on research, knowledge management, capacity building, and other activities; and
  4. To identify policy directions and recommendations for an enabling environment toward an improved agricultural insurance program.
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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation
Vol. 8 No. 4 | Jaime A. Manalo IV

391 MANALO COVER Climate change is an extremely urgent issue that must be addressed, especially in the agriculture sector. In 2014, the Philippines ranked ninth globally as most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (Climate Change Commission 2014).

 Central to addressing the impacts of climate change in agriculture is improving the ways by which information on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) reaches the farmers.

Presently, the extension system is fraught with several issues brought mainly by its devolution (Saliot 2014). Aging extension workers, mobility issues, among others make it difficult to have a seamless extension network in the country.

In 2014, the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) explored the possibility of mobilizing Technical Vocational high school students to serve as information providers of CSA. This was part of PhilRice’s Infomediary Campaign, which is a youth engagement initiative in agriculture. Towards an additional strategy in doing extension, the researchers looked into (1) evidence of searching and sharing information on rice by infomediaries, (2) the characteristics of infomediaries who are most likely to share information on rice to farmers, (3) the types of information that can be shared by the infomediaries, (4) the infomediation process that transpired in sharing information, and (5) evidence of use of information passed on in the process.

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cc philriceInfomediary Campaign – creating new communication pathway in agricultural extension for remote rice farming communities through mobilizing young people to serve as Infomediaries.

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To know more about the Philippine Rice Research Institution (PhilRice)'s Infomediary Campaign, visit http://www.philrice.gov.ph/the-infomediary-campaign/.                 

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This manual is aimed at providing a knowledge base on climate change, especially catered for teachers and trainers. The manual will introduce the basics of climate change – what is it, why is it happening, what are the projected impacts, and what can be done. It has a strong focus on the science of climate change which is essential in providing a better understanding of the broader picture – why climate change is happening and how to better address the challenge.

Also, this manual aims to bring climate change closer to the youth by providing a local context. It explains the observed and projected climatic changes as well as the vulnerabilities of the Philippines. It recognizes the importance of engaging the local government in educating the youth. Their participation and support in terms of providing information related to climate change in the city or municipality is important in order to better understand the direct impacts of climate change to their communities.

Lastly, this manual could aid in catalyzing youth action towards a low-carbon and climate-resilient future. It provides options for mitigation and adaptation actions that can be adopted by the youth, as well as youth-led initiatives in the Philippines and around the world. This is crucial because the real challenge goes beyond raising awareness, but inducing behavioral changes in order to truly address climate change.

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Source: ICLEI

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Agriculture and Development Notes on Climate Change Adaptation1
Vol. 8 No. 3 | Prof. Pastor L. Malabrigo, Jr.2

BINHIPlanting native trees is vital in restoring the forest cover and its biodiversity resources. For any reforestation effort to flourish, however, people must appreciate the key role that native trees portray.
 
The decline of the forest cover of the Philippines began during the three-century Spanish colonization. Reduccion, encomienda, and hacienda caused 6M hectare (ha) decrease in the country's total forest resource. The greatest forest degradation in the country’s history was during the American period when Philippine Mahogany was famous in the world market, and log export constituted the main sources of the national income.

The forest cover continued its downturn at the end of World War II, and 20th century ended with only 18.3 percent forest cover remaining. In 2010, the total forest cover was 6.84M ha, based on the Philippine Forestry Statistics. By 2011, the Philippines landed fourth on Conservation International's list of "World's 10 Most Threatened Forest Hotspots," with 7 percent remaining forest, predominantly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests in 2011. Of the 694 threatened plant species in the country, 539 are endemic, including the Philippine dipterocarps (e.g., ironwood, ebony, oaks, and nutmegs).

Now, Philippine biodiversity remains to be one of the most threatened in the world, with 380 threatened tree species of which 40 are critically endangered, 57 are endangered, and 77 are vulnerable. The most beautiful and unique tree species found only in the country are in serious danger of being extinct forever.

Read more: BINHI Tree for the Future: Debunking the Reasons Not to Plant Native Trees

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