Knowledge Resources

Knowledge Resources

Understanding the drought impact of El Niño on the global agricultural areas: An assessment using FAO's Agricultural Stress Index (ASI)

Understanding-drought-FAO-coverEl Niño is a local warming of surface waters that takes place in the entire equatorial zone of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean of the Peruvian coast and which affects the atmospheric circulation worldwide (Kiladis and Diaz, 1989). It usually peaks around Christmas, hence the name of the phenomenon: El Niño is Spanish for Christ Child. La Niña refers to the cold equivalent of El Niño. It is a recurrent weather phenomenon that takes place approximately every two to seven years and usually lasts between 12 and 18 months (CPC, 2005). An El Niño event is defined by a high Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), which is based on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departures from average in the region in the central equatorial Pacific. An El Niño episode is associated with persistent warmer than average sea surface temperatures and consistent changes in wind and rainfall patterns (Figure 1) (Ropelewski and Halpert, 1992; IRI, 2013). Despite their periodic and recurrent manifestations, El Niño episodes do not have a deterministic trend1 with fixed occurrence periods and a constant intensity. As a result, stochastic models2 have been developed to predict the onset and the intensity of El Niño episodes. However, while the accuracy of these models in predicting the onset of an El Niño episode is fairly high, the intensity is much more difficult to predict due to random atmospheric disturbances that may dampen or amplify the intensity of an El Niño occurrence and thus its impact on weather patterns (CPC, 2005).

Read more: Understanding the drought impact of El Niño on the global agricultural areas

Knowledge Resources

Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture: A Manual to Address Data Requirements for Developing Countries

Estimating-GHG-emissions-in-agri-FAO-coverCountries report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from all sectors via national GHG Inventories, submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in accordance with international climate policy agreements and technical guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

The agriculture sector represents a unique challenge for national inventory compilers, especially in developing countries, due to significant difficulties in compiling and regularly updating national statistics for agriculture, forestry and land use —the first necessary step in preparing national GHG estimates.

Read more: Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture

Knowledge Resources

Enabling Farmers to Face Climate Change: Second Cycle of the Benefits Sharing Fund Projects

Enabling-Farmers-to-Face-CC-FAO-coverThis booklet provides an overview of the characteristics and main activities of the projects that are being implemented as part of the second project portfolio of the Benefit-sharing Fund (BSF) of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This second portfolio consists of 22 projects that are currently implemented in 33 countries across Africa, Asia, Near East, Latin America, and the Caribbean. By the time this booklet is being prepared, the Secretariat is finalizing the agreements for additional eight project proposals that have been approved for funding during the second call for proposals and for which funds have become available during 2013. These additional projects will be implemented in 27 countries across Africa, Asia, Near East, Latin America, the Caribbean, and South West Pacific.

The aim of this booklet is to give a general overview of the second project portfolio, as well as to share achievements, best practices and lessons learned during its Midterm phase of implementation. A Report on the Second Round of the Project Cycle of the Benefit-sharing Fund will be elaborated at the end of this project cycle and will convey results and achievements in a more comprehensive way, as requested by the Governing Body at its Fifth Session.

Read more: Enabling Farmers to Face Climate Change

Knowledge Resources

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