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Executive Summary
747029-disaster-mgmt-ref-hdbk-burmaMyanmar, also commonly referred to as Burma, is one of the largest countries in South East Asia with 56 million people.4 Myanmar shares borders with China, Laos, Thailand, Bangladesh, and India. In the south, Myanmar has marine borders with the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Myanmar is ethnically diverse with a majority of the population made up of Bamars. Eight major national ethnic races are present in Myanmar. Each ethnic race is comprised of diverse ethnic groupings (Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Chin, Mon, Bamar, Rakhine, and Shan). The largest city in Myanmar is Yangon and the capital of Myanmar is Naypyidaw. The predominately spoken language in Myanmar is Burmese and 89 percent of the population is Buddhist.
Myanmar is vulnerable to natural disasters such as flooding, drought, earthquakes, cyclones, and communicable and infectious disease outbreaks. Myanmar ranks as one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change and the impacts of natural disasters are expected to increase in the immediate future. Floods and landslides in 2015 demonstrated the vulnerability of the country to natural disasters. In addition to natural disasters, Myanmar has been affected by ongoing national conflicts for the past 40 years, which have yielded population displacements and humanitarian crisis including the Rohingya (or Bengali) population.
Myanmar has made significant progress in its disaster management policies, plans, and procedures since 2008, when Cyclone Nargis impacted the country leaving devastation in its aftermath. The Government of Myanmar (GoM) has modified the government structure and created new authorities and plans to improve the effectiveness of disaster management at all levels. While this progress is encouraging and shows the determination of the government to make necessary adjustments, the resources to implement the policy changes have been slower to develop.
In 2011, Myanmar began the stages of its transformation reform and a civil government, led by President Thein Sein was implemented.6 In 2016, a democratic government took over when President U Htin Kyaw assumed office on March 30, 2016 after the National League for Democracy party lead by Aung San Suu Kyi won the general election in November 2015.7 Aung San Suu Kyi is a prominent political leader of the country and one of the world's most prominent political prisoners as well. She has been offered support of various countries including the U.S. for her efforts to install democracy in Myanmar by peaceful means.
Myanmar is classified by the United Nations (UN) as a Least Developed Country (LDC). The classification of LDC by the UN is based on the following considerations; low income, weak human resources, and economic vulnerability. Nearly 70 percent of the Myanmar population reside and work in rural parts of the country. The livelihoods for rural workers are subsistence-based. Limited access to markets in rural areas is limited and often have higher costs attached. The rural areas of the country are further compromised by civil unrest. Rural areas of Myanmar are also vulnerable to climate factors and natural disasters. Increased migration from the rural areas in Myanmar to the more developed urban area is commonly practice.

Read more: Myanmar: Disaster Management Reference Handbook 2017

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assessing Climate Risk in Myanmar

Assessing Climate Risk in Myanmar: Technical Report

Myanmar’s climate is projected to shift dramatically in the coming decades, having a lasting and significant impact on Myanmar’s ecosystems and, in turn, on human health, agriculture, food security, infrastructure, local livelihoods and the larger economy. The climate risk information in this report, developed in collaboration with the Department of Meteorology (DMH) and in consultation with other key stakeholders, can aid adaptation and resilience planning across many sectors. This report presents climate risk information including observed climate and future projections of temperature, rainfall, sea level rise and various extreme events, and outlines how this information can be used in decision-making. It also describes how climate change will affect biodiversity and ecosystem services, coastal zones, health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources and urban areas. Finally, it documents how climate risk information is being used by the Myanmar Climate Change Alliance (MCCA) to support local ecosystem-based adaptation planning in the delta and Dry Zone towns of Labutta and Pakkoku. It should be seen as a contribution to the broader work on climate change and official projections on temperature and precipitation being carried out by DMH and the Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia (RIMES) due to be released in the near future.

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By: Voltaire A. Velazco | Isamu Morino | Osamu Uchino | Nicholas M. Deutscher | Beata Bukosa | Dmitry A. Belikov | Yu Oishi | Takashi Y. Nakajima | Ronald C. Macatangay | Takahiro Nakatsuru | Shamil Maksyutov | 
Florian M. Schwandner | David W. T. Griffith


  • The Philippines is located in a region where important atmospheric and carbon cycle processes, that are not well understood, take place.
  • Many countries in Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
  • This collaboration between Energy Development Corporation (EDC, Philippines), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan), and University of Wollongong (UOW, Australia) aims to establish the first TCCON station in Southeast Asia in order to help in satellite validation and atmospheric and carbon cycle studies.


TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) is dedicated to the precise measurements of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. TCCON measurements are used extensively for satellite validation, for atmospheric chemistry modeling, and for carbon cycle studies. With the global effort to cap greenhouse gas emissions, TCCON has taken on a vital role in validating past, current, and future satellite missions such as Japan’s Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT & GOSAT-2), National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2 & future OCO-3), and others. However, the lack of reliable validation data for satellite-based greenhouse gas observations in the tropics is a common limitation in global carbon-cycle studies that have a tropical component. The international CO2 modeling community has specified a requirement for expansion of the CO2 observation network within the tropics in order to reduce uncertainties in regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks. A TCCON site in the tropical western Pacific is a logical next step in obtaining additional knowledge that would greatly contribute to the understanding of the Earth’s atmosphere and the carbon cycle. In this study, we present an assessment of a planned site in the Philippines where a new TCCON station, the first in Southeast Asia, will be installed.

Clich here to download.

Source: Oscar M. Lopez Center

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